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Month: March 2017

The Great Pyramid, Part 11

The Great Pyramid, Part 11

This is a picture of the north face of the Great Pyramid below right of the true entrance to the Pyramid is Al Mamoun’s force entrance now used as the main entrance to the Pyramid as the original entrance has been seal shut with a gate.

“According to historical evidence, beautiful smooth limestone blocks, similar to those at the north base, encased the entire Pyramid till 820 A.D., when Caliph Al Mamoun, in his greed to gain possession of supposed hidden treasure, forced his way into the Pyramid’s interior. This was the beginning of the destructive work; and in the years that followed, the outer casing was torn off piecemeal for building purposes.

The existence of the forced passage which extends inward in a horizontal direction till it meets the junction of the Descending and Ascending Passages, proves that the position of the doorway of the true entrance, though evidently well known in earlier times, was (supposedly) unknown to Al Mamoun. Professor Petrie claims that originally, the entrance must have been closed by a stone door, swinging horizontally on side pivots, and having its outer surface flush with the general angle of the casing. He compares the entrance of the South Pyramid of Dashur, which bears evidence of having been closed in this matter. A door such as this would possess no external marks by which its situation could be identified; and knowledge of it having been lost, Al Mamoun was compelled to force an entry for himself.” (We will examine this aspect more thoroughly in our next post) Great Pyramid Passages, Page 139

“Consequently, when Caliph Al Mamoun, with the mistaken idea that the Great Pyramid contained treasure… desired to enter it and explore its wonders, there was only an indistinct rumor to guide him towards trying the northern face rather than any other face of the monument. He selected a spot in the middle line on the seventh course of masonry, and, therefore several feet below and to the right of the true entrance. Here he caused his workmen to force a passage horizontally into the great solid mass of the Pyramid.

It is reported that after weeks of fruitless quarrying, the Caliph’s despairing workmen were disposed to abandon their task, when one day they heard a noise as if something had fallen in an interior space a few feet (actually about 20 feet) from where they were. They immediately set to work eastwards in the direction of the sound, and soon burst into the Descending Passage thus forming the irregular opening found in the west wall of the Descending Passage.

This is a view of the Descending Passage looking south or down toward the pit, the red arrow marking where the irregular opening intersects the passage.

This second photo is a view as if you were standing in the irregular passage looking back down to the Descending Passage you can see the gate below which was seen in the first photo which closes off access to the remainder of the Descending Passage leading to the Subterranean Chamber or pit.

Upon bursting forth into the Descending Passage Al Mamoun’s men found that the noise which they had heard earlier had been caused by the falling of the large angular stone (shown below), which for ages had formed part of the roof of the Descending Passage and had sealed up the entrance to the upper passages and chambers. In this way, the Pyramid’s most important structural secret was revealed for the first time since the erection of the building; and had it not been (supposedly) for the shaking of the masonry which caused the roof-stone to become dislodged and fall, the upper passages might even yet have remained unknown.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 63)

Having reviewed the typically accepted view of the events leading up to the discovery of the upper passages and chambers we would here like to take another look at this event from another prospective, one which when sound reasoning is applied I believe has its merits.

Supposedly according to most versions, Al Mamoun arrived at the Pyramid with an army of scholars (workmen, engineers, architects and masons). For days they scoured the surface for an entrance, but drew a blank. He apparently decided to enter by force at the 7th level of masonry. (The actual entrance is on the 19th course). Having dug or blasted their way through approximately over 30 meters of masonry, they apparently heard (from about 24 ft away through solid masonry), the sound of a stone falling, at which point they turned towards the noise and eventually broke into the descending passage. At this point, they apparently realized that the fallen prismatic block had previously concealed the mouth of the ascending passage and so dug around the granite blocks.”

There are however several problems associated with the Al Mamoun story:

A number of pyramids had already been opened prior to this, and the descending polar passages would have been general knowledge by the time of Al-Mamoun. The presence of an entrance and internal tunnels in the great pyramid had been recorded by Pliny, Strabo, etc. As we are told that the pyramid was sealed when he arrived, one has to ask why he started digging where he did (off-center), and why he continued to dig horizontally into the pyramid for so long a distance (over 30 meters), when according to what was then known no other pyramid had upper chambers or corridors.

His passage leads in an almost (uncannily) direct line to the junction of the ascending and descending passage. Although Petrie states the tunnel to have been cut through the Seventh course of masonry, he also shows it to run through the Sixth course. At present, it is cut through at least two (the height of an average person). It is a curious fact that the Sixth course of masonry is also the top level of the bottom stone (or large angular stone) that hid the granite blocks. This means that they would have been digging only one level above the actual junction of the descending and ascending passages. While the tunnel certainly bears down and left, it only does so at the end, after the ascending passage, and at the point of the granite plugs and junction.

Now ask yourself is it really possible to hear (i.e. feel) a stone drop 4 feet, from behind approximately 24 feet of solid stone, and identify its exact direction, presumably while men are at work digging with picks and shovels?

QuestionWas Al-Mamoun trying to reach the granite ‘plugs‘ specifically?

Answer -If the original, northern entrance was truly lost when he arrived, he took an incredible risk (almost foolish), digging into the pyramid the way he did. As ‘polar‘ passages in pyramids were already well known, it is likely that he had more information available to him at the time then some imagine.

(“Historical Accounts of the ‘Great’ Pyramid

The foregoing remarks do deserve some consideration,

Why did he have his men dig horizontally into the Pyramid when all the evidence gathered from the other Pyramids indicated no upper chambers? Why not start from a much lower course and dig horizontally and downward from the start?

Some speculate that Al Mamoun did have knowledge of the entrance to the Pyramid, and the Descending Passage, but what he was specifically looking for was access to the Ascending Passages, passages which he deduced were there based upon his examination of what has become known as the “Trial Passages” found hewn into the desert rock of the Giza Plateau to the east of the Great Pyramid approximately 87 meters out from its base.

Below is a picture of the northern entrance to the Trial Passages, off in the distance is one of the satellite pyramids.

When they were first examined by Vyse and Perring in the 1840s they were thought to be passages from an abandoned pyramid or tomb, possibly even a fourth subsidiary (or satellite) pyramid of the Great Pyramid. However, later on W.M. Flinders Petrie noticed that the passages seemed to be a very precise copy of the passages inside the Great Pyramid under the shadow of which they were cut.”

A comparison of the Trial Passages with the interior of the Great Pyramid shows the similarities. “Petrie recognized, these passages clearly as a kind of foreshortened copy of the passages in the Great Pyramid” Passage widths, heights and angles mirror the system of passages found inside the Great Pyramid. We have a Descending passage, an Ascending passage, the start of the Grand Gallery and the beginning of the Queen’s Chamber passage. To further add weight to the idea that we are dealing with a replica of the inside of the Great Pyramid, the Ascending passage of the Trial Passages – where it meets the Descending passage – contracts as it does in the Great Pyramid as if it were ready to accept plug-blocks. No plug-blocks have been found in the trial passages yet the builders went to the trouble of adding this feature.

Furthermore, Flinders Petrie in his work The Pyramids and Temples of Giza adds that there is also a passage that corresponds to the top of the well shaft found in the Grand Gallery in the Great Pyramid, however in this case the location is not in any way identical to the position of this feature in the Great Pyramid.

From this we can ascertain that a great deal of effort was expended to duplicate the internal passages of the Great Pyramid out on the desert floor, a stone’s throw from the pyramid itself. Furthermore, the fact that the mean differences in the cut passages are little more than in the Great Pyramid itself (the passages of which are very highly praised by Petrie for their accuracy) raise the likelihood that the two constructions were carried out by the same builders and that a high degree of accuracy was a requisite for both sets of passages.

Let us assume for a moment that many visitors were also aware of the Trial Passages to the East. How many puzzled explorers entered these corridors only to ponder why they were there? They led nowhere and there was no chamber at their conclusion. Instead they ended in a blank wall. Was Mamoun the first to realize they bore a resemblance to the Great Pyramids passages? Anyone measuring the width and height and angle of the entrance to the Great Pyramid and comparing them with the Trial passages would have seen a similarity. Was Mamoun the first to do this and then notice that inside the Trial Passages there was a further passage leading up from the roof of the Descending passage? Did this make him wonder whether a similar passage existed inside the Great Pyramid?

After having come to the conclusion that there was indeed an ascending passage Al Mamoun must have thoroughly examined the Descending Passage looking for any clues to its entrance. The clue would be found in a comparisons with the scored lines carved into the walls of the Great Pyramid’s Descending passage and their similarity to the sloped face found at the top of the Trial Passages’ Descending Passage. It would have been possible to compare the distance between this feature and the beginning of each Descending passage to work out what scale would be needed to calculate the position of the start of the Ascending passage.

The problem with these calculations is that the ground around the start of the Descending passage of the Trial Passages is very worn and it is difficult to ascertain where the passage originally started. However, if it originally started at the height of the seemingly leveled ground above the passages as a whole, this would have enabled Al-Mamoun to have identified the exact spot on the roof of the Descending passage to within a few inches. This would have been more than accurate enough bearing in mind that the hidden lintel (or large angular stone) would have resembled one of the large roofing stones so being correct to within a few inches would have highlighted which stone was actually the hidden lintel and not simply another roofing slab.

Of course he may not have taken this into account and may just have tried examining all of the roofing blocks one by one until he located the right one! The truth is we will never know but it is very interesting to note that it could well have been possible for him to locate the entrance in this manner if he had studied the Trial Passages closely enough and made the connection between the scored lines and the flat surface of rock inclined at the same angle at the head of the Trial Passages.

Locating the hidden lintel Mamoun then removes it and expecting to see an Ascending passage he is suddenly surprised to find that it is indeed there but travels only a few inches before being plugged by huge granite stones! After a few vain attempts at chiseling through the granite plugs themselves proved ineffective he ordered that they be dug around and in doing so he revealed the Ascending Passage. (“Trial Passages, A Message in Stone?

But what now are we to make of the “forced entrance”? What purpose would there be for this particular access to the Pyramid if one could simply enter the descending passage and then bypass the granite plugs around through where Al Mamoun’s men cleared an entrance? Perhaps as suggested by the author of the above mentioned website there is another possibility. 

It is highly probable that the real reason for the forced tunnel was not to get into the pyramid, but rather to get ‘something’ OUT. Whatever it was, though, it must have been small enough to go down the first part of the ascending passage, but it was too long to go around the bend between the descending and ascending passageways. The only alternative for the intrepid explorers, was to dig a tunnel directly outwards from the junction of the two passageways, bypassing the constriction.

This explains both of the questions posed above. The original entrance had been known about, and the accuracy of the forced tunnel is because it was started from inside and dug outwards. This may also explain why so much rubble was later found in the bottom of the descending passage, it came from the forced tunnel’s excavations.”

But what was it that was removed from the Great Pyramid that required this alternative entry way?

Now the author purposes that Al Mamoun finding no treasure in the Pyramid was not about to leave the Pyramid empty handed without some token for all his work and efforts, and so seeing as he could not remove the entire granite coffer itself as its great weight and size would have prevented it from traversing the Ascending Passage he settled simply for the lid itself, conspicuously missing from the coffer. But here too he would run into another problem as once the lid was navigated down the Ascending Passage there would not be enough clearance for the lid to make the turn back up the Descending Passage thus it would prove necessary to force a new tunnel horizontally straight out the Pyramid in order to avoid this problem, however it seems reasonable that most likely having determined the approximate level upon which the granite plugs resided Al Mamoun simply had his men work from both directions excavating both from within and from without the Pyramid, thus expediting the work at a much faster pace.

For the most part I believe the author of this article has presented some valid points, the typical or traditional account has far too many holes in it to justify its truthfulness, however I do have one problem with this scenario of events, it would seem that if the reason for the force entry was indeed in order to facilitate the removal of the coffer lid, that it would have been much easier to have simply enlarged the tunnel cut into the limestone around the granite plugs then the lid could have simply been lowered to the Descending Passage and then brought up out the original entrance, just a thought of course. Needless to say upon further enlightenment in respects to the events, I am leaning toward the belief that Al Mamoun did indeed know the true entrance to the Pyramid however as regards the forced entry that’s still debatable.

Understand however that whether one chooses to stick with the traditional account of events or to consider an alternative possibility this in no way affects either the symbolic significance or the chronological aspects depicted in the pyramid itself it is simply a case of wishing to reason through the various facts in order that we might gain a little more insight into the pyramid.

We will continue with or look at the Great Pyramid shortly.

The Great Pyramid, Part 10

The Great Pyramid, Part 10

The Great Pyramid is 454 feet high or (5478 pyramid inches above mean socket level), which is equivalent to a modern day 48-story building. It covers a little over 13 square acres or 568,500 square feet with a volume of 90,000,000 cubic feet. There are 201 courses or steps to its summit, another 31 feet 8 inches above this summit is the geometric apex formed by the corner edges of the projected casing masonry (shown in red).

“If the average thickness of the missing layers of masonry were the same as the average of 24 of the layers now forming the summit, there must have been 218 courses originally when the monument was completed, counting the top-stone, or head-stone itself as one course. It is generally supposed however that the Great Pyramid’s “chief corner stone” was a larger stone than the above average implies; Professor C. Piazzi suggested that its vertical height was around 100 inches (8 foot 3 inches). But unless a reasonable theory is propounded which can convincingly prove what the dimensions must have been, nothing short of the actual discovery of the stone itself can settle its size.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 268)

“The exact number of stones was originally estimated at 2,300,000 stone blocks weighing from 2-30 tons each with some weighing as much as 70 tons. Computer calculations indicate 590,712 stone blocks were used in its construction.”

It appears that the Great Pyramid was never finished since the top is flat, and not pointed, as it should be. It has a truncated summit which is coarse and uneven and measures about 30 square feet.

This is a close-up of the center of the Pyramid’s summit.

Most likely the top few courses including the top-stone itself were constructed of the same beautiful white Tura limestone as that of the rest of the casing stones found at the base of the Pyramid, and thus being highly prized by both the Egyptians and Arabs alike were most likely removed long ago.

“It was many years after Al Mamoun’s attack on the inside of the Great Pyramid that there began, with the object of building the new Muslim cities and mosques, that spoiling of its outside which resulted in the removal of the top-stone, and of nearly all the smooth white casing-stones that formerly covered or encased the building. Prior to this act of vandalism, the shinning white Pyramid must have presented a glorious sight.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 65)

Glancing at those beautiful white casing stones picture in your mind what a wondrous sight to behold the Pyramid must have been at one time when completely covered by them. The joints between these stones were so tight that from but a short distance away they would all but disappear, especially if you were on the side in which the sun was directly shining. The ancients referred to the Great Pyramid as “ikhet” meaning “glorious light”, a name most fitting both literally and spiritually speaking.

The casing stones weighing as much as 20 tons were placed with an accuracy of 5/1000ths of an inch, and an intentional gap of about 2/100ths of an inch for mortar. The mortar used is of an unknown origin. It has been analyzed and its chemical composition is known but it can’t be reproduced. It is stronger than the stone and still holding up today. One of the largest remaining Casing stones is nearly 5 feet high by 8 feet at the bottom, and weighs approximately 14 tons.

“There are supposedly 144,000 casing stones, all highly polished and flat to an accuracy of 1/100th of an inch, about 100 inches thick and weighing about 15 tons each with nearly perfect right angles for all six sides. Computer calculations indicated 40,745 casing stones were used averaging 40 tons each before the face angle was cut.”

These so-called computer calculations are by no means precise as they fail to take in consideration the vast variations in size of the stones, for example the “header stones”. Yes it may be possible to calculate each course of masonry if one were to assume that all the stones used on a particular course were of the exact same size in length, height, and width, but this is not the case as can be readily discerned especially in regards to the casing stones as noted in the photo below.

Personally I am of the belief that these white casing stones represent the members of the body of Christ cut, chiseled and polished so as to precisely conform to the dimensions of the “chief corner stone” (Luke 20:17), thus it is likewise my belief that there were originally 144,000 casing stones, these stones having slowly disappeared, the few remaining (presently) picturing the last of the feet members this side of the Vail.

In his book The Egyptian Pyramids: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference, J.P. Lepre wrote:

“One very unusual feature of the Great Pyramid is a concavity of the core that makes the monument an eight-sided figure, rather than four-sided like every other Egyptian pyramid. That is to say, that its four sides are hollowed in or indented along their central lines, from base to peak. This concavity divides each of the apparent four sides in half, creating a very special and unusual eight-sided pyramid; and it is executed to such an extraordinary degree of precision as to enter the realm of the uncanny. For, viewed from any ground position or distance, this concavity is quite invisible to the naked eye. The hollowing-in can be noticed only from the air, and only at certain times of the day. This explains why virtually every available photograph of the Great Pyramid does not show the hollowing-in phenomenon, and why the concavity was never discovered until the age of aviation. It was discovered quite by accident in 1940, when a British Air Force pilot, P. Groves, was flying over the pyramid. He happened to notice the concavity and captured it in the now-famous photograph (The first picture to the left below).”

This last remark in regards to the time of the discovery of this special feature of the Pyramid is in dispute as it is claimed that it was illustrated in La Description de l’Egypte Volume V, pl. 8 in the late 1700’s. Though it is apparently more easily observed from the air, the concavity is measurable and is visible from the ground under favorable lighting conditions.

Although only observable from specific sight lines, meticulous measurements taken by Sir Flinders Petrie demonstrate indentations in the center of each side of the Pyramid, as shown in the diagram below.

We will continue with our examination of the Great Pyramid in our next post.

Creation, Part 3

Creation, Part 3

“The heavens proclaim the glory of God. The skies display his craftsmanship. Day after day they continue to speak; night after night they make him known. They speak without a sound or word; their voice is never heard. Yet their message has gone throughout the earth and their words to all the world. God has made a home in the heavens for the sun.” (Psa 19:1-4 New Living Translation)

Milkyway Galaxy

“The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy some 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter which contains 100–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets as well. The Solar System is located within the disk, about 27,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The stars in the inner 10,000 light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A which is likely to be a supermassive black hole.”

“Determining the structure of our own Galaxy (and where exactly we reside in it) has been a longstanding problem for astronomers because we are inside it. In order to map the Milky Way, scientists need to accurately measure the distances to objects within the Galaxy. Measuring cosmic distances, however, also has been a difficult task, leading to large uncertainties. The result is that, while astronomers agree that our Galaxy has a spiral structure, there are disagreements on how many arms it has and on their specific locations.”

At one time it was believed that our Sun was located about halfway between the center of the galaxy and its edge located within a small, partial arm that is known as the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, nestled between the Perseus Arm and the Sagittarius Arm, however new studies find that it is a little closer to the center of the galaxy than previously thought, and that what was once thought to be but a spur may indeed be a more prominent feature of the Milky Way perhaps even a major structure or branch of the Perseus Arm itself that or possibly an independent arm segment.

The diagrams above show the position of the sun in relation to the various spiral arms of our Milky Way galaxy, as seen from above the galactic “north pole.” Each hatch mark along the side of the first diagram represents 5 kilo-parsecs, or 16,300 light-years.

“A team of astronomers has taken an important step toward mapping the Milky Way by accurately measuring the distance to the star-forming region W3OH in the Perseus spiral arm, the nearest arm to us. This long strand of stars streaks out of the Milky Way’s disk in the same manner as others seen in galaxies across the universe.

Until now scientists had difficulties figuring just how far away spiral arms are, and various measurements and techniques had discrepancies ranging by a factor of two. The new results are from a telescope nearly the size of Earth. The astronomers used the Very Long Baseline Array, taking observations from several telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands, to create the resolution of a telescope nearly 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) in diameter.

“We have established that the radio telescope we used, the Very Long Baseline Array, can measure distances with unprecedented accuracy — nearly a factor of 100 times better than previously accomplished,” (Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

In doing so, they determined that W3OH is 1.95 ± 0.04 kilo-parsecs away. That’s about 36,000,000,000,000,000 miles.”

Location is Everything

”The Sun and our Solar System have been located in a stable orbit within our galaxy for the last 4.5 billion years. This orbit lies far from the center of our galaxy and between the spiral arms (of Perseus and Sagittarius). The stability of our position is possible because the sun is one of the rare stars that lie within the “galactic co-rotation radius (Likewise referred to as the GHZ or “Galactic Habitable Zone”).” Just as there are habitable zones located in solar systems so too with respects to galaxies. Typically, the stars in our galaxy orbit the center of the galaxy at a rate that differs from the rate of the trailing spiral arms. Thus, most stars located between spiral arms do not remain there for long, but would eventually be swept inside a spiral arm. Only at a certain precise distance from the galaxy’s center, the “co-rotation radius,” can a star remain in its place between two spirals arms, orbiting at precisely the same rate as the galaxy arms rotate around the core. (Mishurov, Y.N. and L. A. Zenina. 1999. Yes, the Sun is Located near the Co-rotation Circle. Astronomy & Astrophysics 341: 81-85.).

“The estimated Galactic habitable zone ranges between 23,000 to 29,000 light years from the Galactic center. Interestingly, our Earth lies exactly in the center of the Galactic habitable zone. Although this is a distinct possibility viz. the idea of a “Galactic habitable zone” it would seem unlikely that this “habitable zone” would extend within the spirals themselves as there would be far too many stars in close proximity one with another in these areas, nevertheless in the areas located between the spirals there could possibly be billions of stars encompassing this habitable zone with billions of future habitable worlds awaiting development.

Why is it important that we are not in one of the spiral arms?

First of all our location outside the spiral arms puts us in the safest location in the galaxy. We are far removed from the more densely occupied areas, where stellar interactions, (gravitational forces between stars) can lead to disruptions in planetary orbits. Located within these spiral arms of various gases and dust are the birthing grounds of many young blue stars. If our planetary system had been located near one of these stars we might not have lasted as long as we have.

“An example of a blue star is the familiar Rigel, the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the 6th brightest star in the sky. Astronomers calculate that Rigel is approximately 700 to 900 light-years away, and yet it appears almost as bright as a star like Sirius which is only 8.3 light-years away. The temperature of Rigel is approximately 11,000 Kelvin; it’s this high temperature that accounts for Rigel’s color. Rigel puts out about 40,000 times the energy of the Sun.

An even more extreme example of a blue star is the blue supergiant Eta Carinae, located about 8,000 light-years away in the Carina constellation. Again, Eta Carinae is 10 times further away than Rigel, and yet from our perspective it’s only a little dimmer. The surface temperature of Eta Carinae is 40,000 Kelvin, and it shines with much of its radiation in the ultraviolet spectrum. Since this wavelength is invisible to our eyes, we perceive it as blue. All told, Eta Carinae is blasting out 1,000,000 times the energy of our Sun.

Blue stars burn through their fuel at a tremendous rate. With 150 times the mass of the Sun, Eta Carinae has only been around for a few million years and it’s expected to detonate as a supernova within the next 100,000 years. Our Sun, in comparison, has been around for 4.5 billion years and is expected to live another 7 billion years.”

It would not bode well for us to be even remotely close to a star going supernova (i.e. closer than eight parsecs, 26 light-years), at this distance the gamma rays from a supernova could penetrate the earth’s magnetic field and induce a chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere (the outer layer of the ionosphere also known as the magnetosphere), which would then strip away the upper atmosphere including the ozone layer to an extent that the surface of the earth would then be bombarded by harmful solar and cosmic radiation. So you can see the benefit of our having resided outside of the spiral arms. “The 4.5 billion year longevity of earth’s relative peaceful existence (the time needed to prepare the earth for the eventual arrival of man) would not have been possible in most other locations in our galaxy.”

And yet there is still another reason why our position outside the spiral arms is to our benefit, have you ever stood in the darkness while someone was shinning a bright light in your direction? How well were you able to perceive objects outside the glare of this blinding light? Now consider if our vantage point were that of one taken from within the spiral arms amongst the bright young stars (take Rigel for instance which shines with a luminosity 130,000 times the brightness of our sun), it might have been possible to see a small fraction of what was outside this glare, but for the most part our vision of the universe would have been greatly impaired, and of course this does not even take into consideration the stellar dust and various other nebula gases residing in the spiral arms obstructing our view. No our present position has not only allowed us to gain valuable insight into our own galaxy, but likewise to visualize the sheer immensity of the universe itself.

At one time many imagined even as they imagined at one time in regards to the earth that our galaxy was the center of the universe, but now from our unique perspective located outside the spiral arms and with the aid of modern instrumentality (specifically the Hubble Space Telescope) we have come to realize that our galaxy is but one of hundreds of billions of galaxies within the known universe. Now when we gaze into the heavens and witness this most wondrous sight we truly understand how, “The heavens declare the glory of God.”

The Importance of our Position in the Solar System

In the solar system, there likewise exists a special zone where life can exist, an area where water for the most part remains in its liquid state. This zone is called a Habitable Zone. If we calculate the range of the Habitable Zone in the solar system, it becomes 0.95 – 1.15 AU (Astronomical Unit: 1 AU = distance from Earth to Sun). Thus, if the location of the Earth was 5% closer to the Sun, all of the water on Earth would have boiled and if 15% further away from the Sun, all water would have frozen.

The green area in the diagram above shows the Habitable Zone and it is only 0.05% of the area of orbital plane occupied by planets. Amazingly, our Earth is located right in the center of the Habitable Zone. The circles outside of the Habitable Zone represent the orbits of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Another important factor for the Earth to remain in the Habitable Zone is that the Earth has to maintain a circular orbit around the sun. If the Earth had an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity larger than 0.1, all the water upon the earth would freeze at points A and C, and boil at points B and D. Luckily (?), the Earth has a very small eccentricity and rotates around the Sun in near perfect circular orbit.

Is it a coincidence or God’s design?

The Importance of the Size of our Sun

The size of the Sun is important for life on Earth. If we had a small Sun, the habitable zone also becomes small and the distance from Sun to the habitable zone would become much closer than the current one. However if the planet were too close to star (as for example, Mercury), tidal lock between the planet and star could occur with one side of the planet always facing the sun and extremely too hot for life, and the other side facing away to cold.

Now if we had a large Sun we would have had the advantage of a much larger habitable zone, with the possibility of life on one of our sister planets, however with this large sun comes possible disadvantages, for the lifetime of the star is inversely proportional to its size. If our Sun were much larger than the current one, it would consume most of its hydrogen gas in a relatively short period of time. If it ran out of hydrogen fuel, it would gradually expand and engulf the Earth.

Another condition needed is that Sun has to be a single star. Unlike our sun, more than 50% of stars are binary systems. If we had two Suns we would most likely have had a much smaller habitable zone, and of course very strange weather patterns. Luckily (?), we have only one Sun that is just right size and has an estimated (?) lifetime of another 7 billion years.

The Importance of our Moon and its Size

The Moon plays an important role for life on Earth because of its size. Compared to other planets, the Earth has exceptionally large moon (that is in relation to the size of the Earth). The radius of Earth’s moon is 1,740 km whereas that of the Mars’ moon is only about 10 km. Because of its large size the Moon helps stabilize the rotational axis of the Earth and maintains its tilt angle of 23.5 degrees all the time. If there were no Moon, the Earth’s rotational axis would be wobbling and causing unfavorable climate change.

Another important role for the Moon is in producing tides and helping to maintain Earth’s marine ecosystem. The tides mix nutrient-rich fresh water with sea water and provide nutrients to plankton which forms the basis of the marine food chain. If we didn’t have Moon, we couldn’t have ocean tides. Without the tides the sea might possibly be covered in red tide and eventually wipe out most marine life.

Coincidence or God’s design?

(Excerpts taken from “Creation or Evolution?”

Continued with next post.

The Great Pyramid, Part 9

The Great Pyramid, Part 9

“The builders paid special attention to the corner stone’s. They had to support and absorb the enormous weight of the pyramid that pressed down and sideways. To achieve this, they have to interlock with the stones lying on top of them and below them. These stones were especially massive and reached far into the core masonry. Next a second course was laid on top. Each joint had to be overlapped not only by the stone on top but likewise by the one underneath as well. Subsequently the stones were added, one course after the other. Each time care was taken, that the corner stones were well interlocked with the core masonry and the outer casing stones were also well incorporated into the whole structure.” (“Building the Great Pyramid”)

Each course was meticulously leveled and double checked before the next course was laid. In this diagram however we have purposely left off some of the stones in order to illustrate the progression of the work, note closely how the blocks were designed to over-lap each other, with especially large (long) “header blocks” periodically added for extra strength and stability.

As we had previously pointed out there is a distinction made between the Pavement and the Platform even though both surface heights are the same. We are not however as particularly interested in the details of the Pavement as we are in the Platform, as the Platform has a more direct relationship to the Pyramid and the various time features incorporated in it.

The Platform extends about 16 ½ inches beyond the casing stones all around the Pyramid, whereas the pavement extends about 30 feet out, that is at least on the north face as far as we know, over on the east side of the Pyramid along with the White Tura Limestone’s used for the pavement you will likewise find the remains of the basalt pavement which once covered the courtyard of the Valley Temple.

Getting back to the Platform it will be noticed that the Platform is likewise marked by the particular angle in which the front outside edges were cut, particularly where it adjuncts up next to the pavement, this particular angle is roughly about 70 to 75 degrees I believe, that is in comparison with the casing stones which were cut at a 51 degree angle. The true purpose behind the use of this particular angle is not exactly known; nevertheless this angle can be readily discerned in the following two photos.

The importance of understanding where precisely certain measurements begin and end cannot be understated, some of which begin their calculations from outside the Pyramid up its face to the original door opening beginning from the Mean Socket Floor Level while still others are calculated from the Platform or Fundament Levels.

We will continue once again with our next post.

Creation, Part 2

Creation, Part 2

“The LORD formed me, the first of His plans, Before He began to create; And I was enthroned from of old, Ere the first preparations of earth; When Space was not made I revolved; Before the deep springs of the sea; before that the mountains were set, I revolved ere existed the heights; ere the earth and its circuit was made, And before the first dusts of the worlds.”

When He formed the suns (the heavens, the universe) I was there, when their circuits were settled in space, when arranging the clouds from above, When controlling the fountains in space; When He fixed His decree for the sea, That the waters should not pass the shore; When He fixed His decree for the land, I was there with delight, day by day. I rejoiced in His presence the while; I rejoiced in the circling of earth, and rejoiced in the children of men.”

(Prov 8:22-31 Ferrar Fenton Translation)

Consider the foregoing for a moment, “Here in the Eighth Chapter of Proverbs, Solomon speaking of Jesus, the Logos, under the symbol of wisdom, puts these words into his mouth:

I existed before as yet he had created space. That is to say, when the great supreme architect began to put his plan into execution, he seems to have pushed back the walls of “nothingdom”, and created space. He sowed space with the constellations of the heavens.”

The above photo was taken by the WFC3/IR camera on Hubble in late August 2009 during a total of four days of pointing at a relatively inconspicuous and dark area of space for 173,000 seconds of total exposure time, what was revealed amazed everyone, multitudes of galaxies yet unseen. When you have the time you will want to see this video it will truly open your eyes to the sheer immensity of our universe.

In a beginning God created the heavens and the earth”, that is to say the expanse of space composing the known universe with its multitudes upon multitudes of heavenly constellations (Galaxies), each of these composed of billions of stars, many of which are believed to be surrounded by untold trillions of satellites (i.e. planets), and amongst one of these small and possibly rather insignificant stars He placed or brought into existence the earth. How exactly he accomplished this feat that is the creation of the universe, whether with a “big bang” as some scientist purpose or in complete silence and order as is His known characteristic is unknown we have but the theories and opinions of men to guide us where the Scriptures are silent.

The Big Bang Theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the early development of the Universe.”

“According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as “singularity” around 13.7 billion years ago. What is asingularityand where does it come from? Well, to be honest, we don’t know for sure. Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics. They are thought to exist at the core of “black holes.” Black holes are areas of intense gravitational pressure. The pressure is thought to be so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density (a mathematical concept which truly boggles the mind). These zones of infinite density are called “singularities.” Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something – a singularity. Where did it come from? We don’t know. Why did it appear? We don’t know.

After its initial appearance, it apparently inflated (wha-la, the “Big Bang), expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside of an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.” (“Big Bang Theory- An Overview

The following is a quote from the opening of a book entitled “The God Particle” written by the Nobel Prize winner physicist Leon Lederman, the book itself is of no great importance to our study here as it simply deals with a case for building a Super Conducting-Super Collider, but the opening quote is very pointed.

“In the very beginning, there was a void, a curious form of vacuum, a nothingness containing no space, no time, no matter, no light, no sound. Yet the laws of nature were in place and this curious vacuum held potential. A story logically begins at the beginning, but this story is about the universe and unfortunately there are no data for the very beginnings–none, zero. We don’t know anything about the universe until it reaches the mature age of a billion of a trillionth of a second. That is, some very short time after creation in the big bang. When you read or hear anything about the birth of the universe, someone is making it up–we are in the realm of philosophy. Only God knows what happened at the very beginning.”

And thus we are not going to delve any further into discussing this theory or any other theory on the origins of the universe as these are readily discussed all over the internet and if anyone is curious they can take a look for themselves. As for ourselves we are content that it was the Work of God who created the universe that it was he “who stretched out the heavens like a curtain, and spread them out like a tent to dwell in.” (Isa 40:22), it was not the result of some hap-hazard accident or the by-product of a big bang. He is a God of order, not chaos; nothing takes place without his approval and direction.

In our next post we will take a look at some of the evidence which shows the care in which the Lord took in the placement and surroundings of the earth in our Galaxy.

The Great Pyramid, Part 8

The Great Pyramid, Part 8

Let us now continue with our examination of the foundation structure of the Great Pyramid, once the central rock core and surface area around the central rock core (the fundament) had been thoroughly leveled (as depicted in our last post), the next step in the building process would be the establishment of the platform level and the pavement.

“The payment is a distinct piece of masonry, and should not be confounded with the platform, the front edge of which projects about 16.5 inches beyond the bottom edge of the casing stones. Although the top surface of the pavement is beautifully level and continuous with the platform, the stones with which it is built vary considerably in thickness. The platform stones on the contrary are of a uniform thickness throughout; the builders therefore spent much time in accurately leveling the natural rock preparatory to laying the platform.”

“These three levels, namely (1) the upper surface of the Platform, i.e. the Platform Level, (2) the leveled natural rock or Fundament Level under the Platform, and (3) the Mean Socket Floor Level, are related to each other and to the doorway of the ancient Entrance, and also to the “basement-sheet” of the Descending Passage, by a connecting system of harmonious measurements. They are all required in the calculations of the time-features of the Pyramid.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Vol. 2, Page 115)

Thus as we had stated earlier a closer look at the Pyramids foundation is prerequisite to our chronological study especially if we would ever hope to arrive at the correct time calculations.

Both the Platform and the Pavement were both compiled of the same White Tura limestone as that which was used in the Casing Stones, “this type of limestone is of a very high quality – white, very fine-grained, not very porous and somewhat harder than the typical gray-yellow colored nummulite limestone used in the construction of the core of the Pyramid. Tura limestone can easily be cut and formed but when exposed to air it hardens after a certain time. This particular type of limestone was very much treasured by the ancient Egyptians; it was used for several pyramids, for other monuments and for statues as well. The Arabs also liked this stone and used it to build mosques”. For this reason very few stones remain both of the casing stones and the pavement stones, I’m not sure about the platform stones as I have not read anything nor seen any pictures in which these stones were removed, most likely because in order to be removed it would first require the removal of not only the casing stones but some of the central core stones as well which sat upon or in some cases overlapped these particular stones, some of which weight as much as 10 tons. The following picture which we had looked at before gives evidence of the removal of some of these pavement stones.

As we look at this picture once again we would like to point out another interesting feature in regards to the construction of the foundation, particularly in regards to the cut and position of the various stones. In the second illustration of the same picture note how we have highlighted the particular features of the stones especially note the platform stones to the left of the man standing next to the casing stones. Not only are some of these stones of an irregular cut, but likewise some of these stones used a little further back in the platform were of the typical gray-yellow colored limestone quality rather than the fine white Tura limestone used on the exposed sections of the platform.

Another view from a different vanish point. (Sorry I didn’t highlight the stones in this picture so they’re a little difficult to see, but you get the jest.)

There is an obvious reason for the use of the lesser quality limestone being used simply to fill in gaps on the platform beneath the casing stones, as these would not be seen, but why the irregular cut stones? The reason is this, “not only did the ancient builders use “header blocks” especially long stones used to tie together the shorter stones around them, but likewise the ancients chose even more complicated bonds. They used angular joints and stones shaped like a trapeze to be sure, that the structure was safe from tension and the formation of cracks. Irregular corner joints and interlocked joints help aid the stones from sliding due to the tremendous downward and horizontal pressures of the Pyramid face. Likewise they also left some of the stones from one course protruding up into the next course, only for a few centimeters mind you, but that was enough to achieve even greater stability.”

The builders were very meticulous about the placement (i.e. the précised pattern), and leveling of the platform as this course would have a direct effect upon every subsequent course laid. “The foundation slabs had a slight gradient of 2-3° inwards. Special stones for the foundation (especially the corners) were laid down, their function being to anchor the pyramid body to the bedrock (See the second diagram shown above). The lowest layer had to be planned very thoroughly, because here especially large stones were used, some of which weigh as much as 6.5 to 10 tons”. (“Building the Great Pyramid”)

We will continue once again with our examination of the Pyramid shortly.

Creation, Part 1

Creation, Part 1

In this study we will be taking another look at the creation account as outlined in Genesis, however in order to properly lay a foundation for our particular position on this subject it will prove necessary that we first venture a bit into speculation that is with regards to events proceeding the creative days. There are of course as many theories on what preceded Gods work as it relates to the readying of the earth for man as there are theories on the Genesis account itself. Our object here however is to find a way in which both natural laws and the Word of God can coincide one with another, naturally with the LORD’s Word taking precedence.

As a Christian always bear in mind that it is the theory which must harmonize with the divine testimony, NOT the other way around.


“The universe obeys certain rules—laws to which all things must adhere. These laws are precise, and many of them are mathematical in nature. Natural laws are hierarchical in nature; secondary laws of nature are based on primary laws of nature, which have to be just right in order for our universe to be possible. But, where did these laws come from, and why do they exist? If the universe were merely the accidental by-product of a big bang, then why should it obey orderly principles—or any principles at all for that matter? Such laws are consistent with biblical creation. Natural laws exist because the universe has a Creator God who is logical and has imposed order on His universe.”

Everything in the universe, every plant and animal, every rock, every particle of matter or light wave, is bound by laws which it has no choice but to obey. The Bible tells us that there are laws of nature—“ordinances of heaven and earth” (Jer 33:25). These laws describe the way God normally accomplishes His will in the universe.

God’s logic is built into the universe, and so the universe is not haphazard or arbitrary. It obeys laws of chemistry that are logically derived from the laws of physics, many of which can be logically derived from other laws of physics and laws of mathematics. The most fundamental laws of nature exist only because God wills them to; they are the logical, orderly way that the Lord upholds and sustains the universe He has created. The atheist is unable to account for the logical, orderly state of the universe. Why should the universe obey laws if there is no law-giver? But laws of nature are perfectly consistent with biblical creation. In fact, the Bible is the foundation for natural laws.” (“God & Natural Law” by Jason Lisle, Ph.D.)

So in essence the natural laws which we hope to coincide with the Word of God were in fact of His own creation, so it shouldn’t be all that difficult to arrive at some logical conclusions in our study, but first before we begin let us first take a closer look at the opening statement of Genesis, as we wish to explain the reasoning for the statement, “In a beginning” in our posts opening diagram.


VERSE 1 “In the beginning …”

The original Hebrew text translates it thusly,

b·rashith          bra               aleim    ath  e·shmim         u·ath      e·artz

in·beginning   he-created   Elohim  »   the·heavens   and·»    the·earth

“As noted the qualifying “the” does not appear in the Hebrew and hence a more accurate translation would be “a beginning.”

“In a beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

“This is not the beginning of God, but the beginning of His physical and visible works. God has no origin, nor initiation, nor genesis. He has neither end nor termination. “He is from everlasting to everlasting.” (Psa 90:2) He existed before time itself, (Isa 43:12). His life principle is like a circle unending without origin or end. Like a perfect circle try to find where it begins or ends. This is a mind boggling concept. God is self-existent, self-contained and self-perpetuating. This is not an attempt to define God for God cannot be defined. He can only be encountered. Only a vague perspective can be grasped. God is a spirit, eternal and unchangeable. “TEN BAD MISTAKES ABOUT GOD” Pages 234-235

We are to remember that this beginning relates NOT to the universe as a whole, but merely to our planet. Then it was that ‘the morning stars sang together’ and all the angelic sons of God ‘shouted for joy’ – when the Lord laid the foundations of the earth and ‘made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness its swaddling band’ (Job 38 4-11).

Even yet a still earlier beginning is mentioned in the Bible; a beginning before the creation of those angelic sons of God; as we read in John 1:1- 3: ‘In a beginning was the Word (the Logos, the divine mouthpiece, the representative), and the Logos was with the God and the Logos was a God: the same was in the beginning with the God. All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that was made.’ (See Volume 5, Chapter 3.)

The “Only Begotten” has the highest distinction above all other beings, for he is The beginning of the creation of God”– the “first born of every creature”, “the First and the Last”, (the only) direct creation of God (Rev 3:14; Col 1:15; Rev 2: 8). “For by him were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and unto him; and he is before all things, and in him all things consist.” (Col 1:16-17). “The LORD formed me from the beginning, before he created anything else” (Prov 8:22 New Living Translation).

Other beginnings came in turn as the various angelic orders were one by one created; and these beginnings were in the past, so that their hosts could shout for joy when our earth’s creations, related in Genesis, had their beginning.

A possible synopsis would be the following,

1) First there was and always will be God.

2) Then came the very first beginning, our Lord, the first born and only direct creation of God through whom all subsequent things were to be made, but not by means of His own power or by His own authority, but by the power and authority of the Father, the author of all creation.

3) Following this came the future abode or dwelling place for the various angelic orders soon to be created, “In my Father’s house are many mansions (conditions or levels of being)… I go and prepare a place for you” (John 14:2, 3) it would seem but natural that an abode or dwelling place would first precede the creation of these new beings even as the dwelling place of man was prepared before his arrival.

4) Then came the angelic hosts themselves. Although we are not thoroughly advised as to how many exact orders exist, that is besides angels the scriptures do mention “Seraphim” and “Cherubim,” and that some of these possessed more authority than others, whether this implies that they were of a different type or level of angelic being or simply were given more authority is not precisely clear.

5) Next came the beginning in which God (through his Son, then known as the Logos, recall once again Col 1:16 as noted above) created the heavens and the earth, the cosmos, the universe with its untold millions upon millions of galaxies, stars, and planets, around which one star a small but insignificant planet was created, how long a time existed between this beginning and that which begins in Verse 2 of Genesis is unknown. It is very much a possibility that it encompassed billions of years; remember “He who inhabits eternity has no need to be in a hurry”. All of God’s plans and purposes are working out according to his own will and his own pleasure and naturally according to his own “due time”.

6) And then it was, the time appointed, the beginning of the work of creation as outlined in the Genesis account the preparation of the earth for the arrival of God’s earthly sons.

“In the beginning God created…”

Why? Why should God create? Why should he feel the need to create anything if he is immortal, self-existing and in need of nothing?

Is it true that God does not need anything?

The answer we seek may be found in the very character or nature of God. God is love, (1 John 4:8) love is unselfishness, “Love seeks not her own.”

God is love, and love gives. “If love, (and therefore, God) has one pre-eminent need or quality that need is GIVING. God created so that He would have beings for which He could GIVE or share blessings.”

Our God is a benevolent God, a giving God, the giver of every good and perfect gift, the giver of life and breath to all things.

I believe Brother George Tabac summed it up rather nicely when he stated,

“How can one begin to describe the awesome attributes of our God, the great first cause, who is from everlasting to everlasting, a being who was eternally self-sufficient, needing nothing beyond his being to make him happy, because he was infinitely perfect and complete in himself. Therefore when we consider the reason why God began his creation, we believe it was not for his own pleasure or companionship. But rather it was because of what the apostle John told us, that GOD IS LOVE! It was God’s love that was the motivating factor in the creation of angels and man.

He wanted to create other beings NOT for his pleasure, but for their pleasure. He created life simply so that others could enjoy all the blessings and joys that life has to offer. Thus we see the creation of other intelligent beings demonstrates LOVE as one of the prime attributes of our God.”

“In the beginning God created the heavens…”

Some students of the word are of the opinion that the “heavens” here mentioned refer to firmament, the atmosphere which surrounds the earth rather than the starry heavens themselves, note the following remarks,

“It is commonly assumed that these “heavens” are in reference to the starry heavens, the universe above, that Verse 1 refers to a time long ago when the universe as well as the various stars and planets including the earth came into existence, however some are equally convinced that this reference to “heaven” refers not to any point remote from the earth, but rather to the underside of the canopy which surrounded the earth at the time. This expanse located between the core of the earth and beneath the canopy assumed to be roughly 22,000 miles in depth was occupied at the time by super-heated gases which suspended the canopy above. The evidence in support of this position is based upon Verses 6- 8 of Genesis in which after God had created a “firmament” (the expanse or atmosphere), which separated the waters which were above from those which were below He referred to it as the “heaven”.

Now personally I have no problem with either as regardless of whether the reference were in respects to the “firmament” or the starry heavens this would in no way detract from the fact that both the universe and the planet earth (the physical globe) came into existence long ago, long before the work of creation as narrated in the Genesis account, however… just for the sake of argument let us take a look at the original Hebrew translation once more that we might determine the facts for ourselves.

In Verse 1 note the Hebrew “e·shmim” is used with the qualifying “the” added, i.e. the·heavens, “In the beginning God created the heavens”, which appears to invoke special emphasis to these “heavens”.

Now take a look at the same as found in Verse 8 and you will note that the same special emphasis is not indicated in the latter, the qualifying “the” is absent.

u·iqra                      aleim        l·     rqio                shmim               

and·he-is-calling    Elohim     to·  ·atmosphere   heavens

Both are plural but one has special emphasis thus possibly distinguishing a difference between the two “heavens”.

Another thought is this, in the opening verse it states that God created the heavens and the earth, the heavens (the universe) apparently preceding the creation of the earth, whereas in Verse 8 it appears that the earth existed prior to the creation of the firmament or heavens.

The evidence seems to favor the idea that the “heavens” spoken of in Verse 1 refer to the cosmos, the starry heavens.

VERSE 2And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness [was] upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.”

The original Hebrew translated.

u·e·artz             either             theu       u·beu              u·chshk             ol       – phni           theum 

and·the·earth   she-became   chaos    and·vacancy    and·darkness   over   surfaces-of   abyss

u·ruch             aleim       mrchphth     ol       – phni            e·mim

and·spirit-of   Elohim    vibrating    over   surfaces-of   the·waters      

The Emphasized Bible (Rotherham) a version highly rated for its translation accuracy translates it thusly,

Now, the earth, had become waste and wild, and darkness, was on the face of the roaring deep,-but, the Spirit of God, was brooding on the face of the waters.” (Gen 1:2)

There is some dispute over whether it should be read as, “And the earth was…” and/or “And the earth became…”

It is very much a possibility that too much has been read into this phrase “had become” with opinions veering from one extreme to another, with some implying that there was a world which existed before this world, a world inhabited by angels or by both angels and men a world which God had to destroy because it had become destructive and evil, that it was at this time that Lucifer fell none the lease of which is scripturally sound. Why should angels who were given a heavenly abode wish to confine themselves to an earthly sphere? As for men we are expressly informed that Adam was the first man that no human sons existed prior to him.

Sometimes the simplest explanation is the best answer, this phrase “became” simply implies that the earth was in a stage of formation evolving from a mere collection of matter into a celestial body or planet and that in consequence this formation naturally involved many volatile (wild and inhabitable) stages of development as the earth crusts was still in its infancy. Thus the earth at this stage “had become” a waste and wild world covered in waters both upon its surface and in the swaddling band or canopy which shrouded it in darkness.

“At first the earth was but a mass of energy, and as an earth (a stable world) it was as yet, unformed, and as far as life was concerned, empty and void. Then we saw that the water and gaseous matters were thrown away from the center core, forming a great cloud, or deep, around that core. Since there would be too much earthly material in this deep for the sun’s rays to penetrate to the surface of the core, it would have been true that “darkness was upon the [inside] face of the deep,” even though the sun shown upon the outside, even as it now shines upon the planets which still have their canopies, the gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.” (Rings and Canopies, Appendix)

“The Hebrew word Bar’a, “created” in Gen 1:1 comes from the root Barah, meaning “to fill.”  So by “creating” the heavens and the earth, God really “filled” the heavens and the earth to the ancient Hebrew mind. Think about that for a moment.  As far as we know there was at some point only God and the rest was void. So God filled that void, so to speak, with what we now call the heavens with all those stars, galaxies and things we probably don’t even know about.”

In the beginning God filled the heavens and earth” filled the void which was empty of substance, with respects to the universe he filled it with galaxies, stars, and planets, and the earth he filled with life.

Continued with next post.


The Great Pyramid, Part 7

The Great Pyramid, Part 7

“In the center (beneath the pyramid structure), the rock core is left standing but is terraced, so a rock outcropping with steps is left in the middle (depicted by the red line in the above illustration). This is important, because the rock core has a different coefficient of shrinkage than the stone blocks that are used for the pyramid body. If you don’t consider this fact, the structure will develop displacements and fissures. To avoid this you have to interlock the building stones with the bedrock, to accomplish thisheaders” are used, which are long stones reaching into the rock and tying them together.” (“Building the Great Pyramid”)

“Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had been removed, down to the solid bedrock of the plateau, the whole pyramid site was open-cast quarried into blocks, leaving a square core for the center of the pyramid (the core is approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25 feet high. This of course is speculation as there is no way to actually determine the true height and size of the core structure nor the exact number of terrace levels as this central rock core is completely buried beneath the pyramid itself, at best this could only be estimated). This core gives the pyramid stability from the downward and horizontal forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of blocks of stones that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the prevailing north-west winds that exert enormous pressures on the huge areas of the pyramid’s faces, thus increasing these forces further.

The blocks which were quarried were then stored outside a low wall; made of mortared stone that surrounds the core (the outside dimensions of the wall are approx. 887.3 feet square). Today there still remains the foundation of this wall on the north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an average distance of 65 feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.”

Several different methods have been suggested as to how precisely the pyramid site was leveled.

One such method which has been suggested is that it was “accomplished by flooding the entire area inside the wall (referred to above) with water, leaving just the high spots. These then were cut down to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was released and the high spots again were cut down to the water’s surface. This process was repeated until the entire pyramid site, between the core and the four walls, was leveled down to the base of the pyramid’s platform. (Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid: Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It: How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built by Socrates G. Taseos)

Another suggests that “once the proper site was chosen and the surface sand removed a grid of interconnecting channels was cut into the bedrock. These trenches were flooded with water. They were able to make level marks on the rock walls. The walls could then be cut to the same height, making the top surface level. The trenches were then filled with rubble”.


The difficulty with these first two theories is the fact that the plateau upon which the pyramid resides sits about 130 feet above the Nile valley thus it would prove quite a feat indeed to pump that much water up to this height especially so if the first method suggested were utilized this would require pumping enough up the incline to flood 13 acres and at a height sufficient to cover the central rock core which it is presumptuously stated to be about 46 feet above the plateau, that’s quite a large above ground swimming pool, a monumental task in itself.

A somewhat more reasonable approach however which has been suggested would be that “the builders installed posts (batter boards, as depicted in the second diagram below) at regular intervals. A line, leveled with plumb bobs, was then pulled taut across the posts at a reference mark to ensure alignment, and then they could excavate the foundation down to the reference marks”.

“The only instrument for leveling known to the ancient Egyptians was the square level. This is a right-angled isosceles triangle made from wood. This tool is made in the shape of the letter “A” and looks like a triangle ruler or a builder’s square. A plumb-line is suspended from the top of the connected corners. If the plumb bob coincides with a mark in the middle of the crossbeam, the surface area on which the two legs stand is level. By placing this triangle on stone, these could be easily leveled”.

Isosceles triangle made from wood with plumb-line and plumb bob, which points to the mark on the cross beam.

“For establishing equal levels over large distances, this triangle was laid on top of a beam. First the triangle was checked and adjusted, so it would lie horizontally and level on the beam. Then, by fixing upon a leveling staff in the distance, differences in height could be noticed and corrected. Field tests showed that up to a distance of 45m a difference of 1 centimeter could be detected. Because of the limited eye sight of humans larger distances could not be covered. But because it is possible to sight on both sides from this kind of measuring station, it probably was possible to correctly level distances of up to 90 meters”.

“The base area and the outer fundament are leveled, and then the pyramid corners and the edges are measured. For the corner stone’s a special bed (or socket) is cut, so they can support and absorb the enormous weight of the pyramid that presses down and sideward’s. (The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid known to possess these socket-foundations). The fundament (or foundation) is laid down with a slight gradient of 2-3° inwards, any Crevices or cracks on the plateau are filled and if necessary blocked up with large stones, so the basalt pavement could later be laid on a level surface.” (“Building the Great Pyramid”)

Here we have an illustration of one of the crevices or fissures found on the plateau. “According to the account of Col. Howard Vyse, this fissure, the hole in the ground to the left was discovered in 1837 A.D. and had originally been filled with ruble stone-work, and covered over with large inset stones, one of which may be seen in the photograph, partly fallen in. Over these inset stones which were flush with the leveled rock, the beautifully fitted pavement had been laid.” It was believed at the time that this fissure might be connected to some sort of subterranean chamber under the Pyramid at one time alluded to by the Greek historian Herodotus, however after a thorough investigation no passage was found and it was determined that there was no subterranean passage in connection with the Great Pyramid save that of the well-known Descending Passage leading to the Pit, a hundred feet below the base of the Pyramid. (Great Pyramid Passages, Vol. 1 Page 136)

Continued with next post.

The Great Pyramid, Part 6

The Great Pyramid, Part 6

This is the victory that overcomes the world, even our faith.” This is the faith which is built upon the testimony of God’s Word—a sure foundation.

The Great Pyramid Gods stone “witness” likewise has been built upon a sure foundation, a very unique foundation. Unlike your typical buildings in which when speaking of its foundations one looks toward the earth, here we must look to the heavens, for this building, spiritually speaking has been built from its top to its bottom. A Pyramid has five foundation points rather than your typical four as found in most structures, the chief or most important of these is the top stone. All of the subsequent stones added to this structure must be modeled after this particular foundation or cornerstone, symbolically showing how all of God’s sons, both in heaven and in earth, must be conformed to the image of his dear Son.

“Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: “Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, A tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; Whoever believes will not act hastily.” (Isa 28:16)

“Upon this rock (Greek petra, the rock in mass, the foundation rock or stone) I will build my church.” (Matt 16:18)

Zech 4:7 calls it the “headstone,” not incongruous because, as a heavenly building it has a heavenly foundation and is held together by heavenly attraction (That is to say the true foundation of this building resides at the top rather than the bottom). R1568:4 how appropriate then that the stone in whose likeness the whole structure is to be finished should be laid first. A243

“Now, just because a foundation has been laid, this does not indicate that the building is completed quite yet: “Then came the same Sheshbazzar (the Babylonian name for Zerubbabel), and laid the foundation of the house of God which is in Jerusalem: and since that time even until now hath it been in building, and yet it is not finished.” (Ezra 5:16 KJV)

“The hands of Zerubbabel (antitypically representing the Lord) have laid the foundation of this temple (the Church, and in due time) his hands shall also finished it.” (Zech 4:9)

If you recall in Solomon’s temple, only the best materials were to be used; where then it might be asked should the real temple of God find its building materials? It might seem to us that the faithful angels might first be the firsts considered for such building materials, but alas such was not God’s plan. He sought more humble material –those found in Asia (i.e. in the “mud” or earthly conditions Rev 1: 4), those “quarried” from the mire of sin. “I came not to call the righteous but sinners to repentancenot many noble ones, but crooked sticks and crumbling stones, cut from the ranks of the base things of this world.”

But here in this particular study we would like to take a closer look at God’s natural stone monument, and its foundation the importance of which will later aid us in our chronological study.

Like any building the first order of business is to appropriate the proper site for construction, since this building will consist on a monumental scale covering an area over thirteen acres or 568,500 square feet and with an estimated weight of well over 6,000,000 tons it only seems natural that the builders would have first carefully considered their location, and the proximity to the material used in its construction.

Some of the following comments in regards to construction of the Great Pyramid were taken from the following website, “Building the Great Pyramid” at Generally I don’t think much of some of the various pyramid sites out there as most border on pure speculation and the vain imaginings of men, however this particular website approaches the construction of the Great Pyramid with some very good and well thought out reasoning, something which has apparently for the most part been neglected on some of the other pyramid sties which I have investigated. Understand that this particular website deals primarily with the construction of the pyramid not with regards to any symbolism or chronological significance, this is actually a plus for the site as they avoid some of the common misconceptions implied on other sites.

“The pyramid builders carefully chose the building ground for the pyramids. The Khufu-pyramid lies on the best ground existing on the Giza plateau and on top of a rock core which reaches at least 25 feet under the pyramid. How important the choice of building ground was, shows the fact that one of the satellite pyramids probably had to be moved closer to the others, because the ground was considered not stable enough” (The satellite pyramids would be in reference to the three smaller pyramids located to left north face of the Great Pyramid pictured in the diagram above, note that the far left pyramid sits closer to the center pyramid than does the far right one).

“Major problems had developed earlier at other building sites, because the strength of the ground was overestimated when erecting a pyramid. For example the ground beneath the pyramid of Sneferu (father of Khufu,) in Dahshur (pictured above) gave way under the weight and caused damage in the casing. Another outer layer of casing had to be added, changing the angle of inclination from 60° to 54.46°. But again structural problems with the subsidence developed, the casing slipped and more damage occurred. In the end the angle of inclination had to be drastically lowered to 43.99°. Now this pyramid is called the Bent Pyramid, because of its shape”.

“A survey of the Giza plateau shows that the pyramids are aligned to the north-south axis as well as in relation to each other. The ancient engineers worked very precisely, not only are the three pyramids each perfectly centered, but the angle of inclination is also the same from bottom to top. The base area or plateau of the pyramid of Khufu (including the surrounding pavement) was leveled with great precision, so only a deviation of 2.1 cm can be measured”.

We will continue with our examination of the general construction and symbolism of the Great Pyramid in our next post.

The Great Pyramid, Part 5

The Great Pyramid, Part 5

As was stated in our previous post the testimony of the Lord’s stone witness has been kept hidden from the world, but shortly sometime during the beginning of the Mediatorial phase of the kingdom its testimony will be delivered to (Egypt) the world, then and only then will they be prepared to appreciate the testimony of this particular witness.

It is very possible that sometime during the opening stages of the Mediatorial reign the Great Pyramid will be completely refurbished with all the beautiful white limestone casing stones which once covered its exterior, and for the first time [ever], a Top Stone will cap the edifice to then be an everlasting memorial to symbolize the oneness of the Kingdom of God.

Then shall the LORD declare:

“What are you, O Great Mountain? (Babylon; the kingdom of the Evil One) Before Zerubbabel you will become a plain; and he will bring forth the top stone with shouts of Grace, grace to it!” (Zech 4:7 NAS)

The great mountain of Satan’s Kingdom will be leveled and will become the flat plain of the Highway of Holiness. Zerubbabel as you remember rebuilt the typical Temple, so our LORD as the antitypical Zerubbabel will complete the spiritual temple, (Compare 1 Pet 2:5a spiritual house” and Eph 2:21a holy temple”) “The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this temple [the Church], his hands shall also finished it” (Zech 4:9), and then shall all mankind recognize Jesus with shouts of joy as the Top Stone.

“The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief (or head) cornerstone.” (Luke 20:17)

[And thus shall] our exalted Lord reign over all mankind, who in turn [shall] endeavor to conform their lives in harmony to his principles.

During this Gospel Age there has been erected a counterfeit or Antitypical Pyramid, the workmanship of Satan as in comparison with God’s “workmanship” the true temple of the LORD (Eph 2:10) this counterfeit kingdom claiming to rule by Divine right, has dominated the whole world for many centuries; but it is not the kingdom for which the Lord taught his disciples to pray: “Thy Kingdom come.” Soon its sins will have reached unto heaven, and God will remember its iniquities; and its plagues will come in one day, death and mourning and famine; and it will be utterly destroyed with (or in) fire (trouble); for strong is the Lord God who judges it, (Rev 18:5, 8) This will [take place] during the great time of trouble, which is now begun, and will completely end the Gospel Age.”

On the Chart of the Ages [it will be noticed that], the great time of trouble is represented by the shaded part at the end of the Gospel Age. The large imperfect pyramid there shown falling into ruins, represents the destruction of ‘Babylon the Great,” the counterfeit Antitypical Pyramid, which has never been completed. In the 51st chapter of Jeremiah, the Lord intimates that for it there will be neither “headstone”, nor “foundation-stones.”

Behold I am against thee, O destroying mountain [kingdom], says the Lord, which destroys the earth: and I will stretch out mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain: and they shall not take from thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for a foundation; but everlasting ruins shall thou be, says the LordJer 51:25, 26-Leeser’s translation. This vivid description of the Lord’s judgment doubtless applied to the literal Babylon of the prophet’s day, but as indicated by the many citations in the book of Revelation, it has its Antitypical fulfillment in the destruction of “Babylon the GreatRev 17:5; 18 (Great Pyramid Passages Page 51)

More specifically we believe that Babylon’s demise will come just prior to Armageddon, following the collapse of the Confederacy between church and state, when Satan shall be made clearly manifested to all through the works of his deluded servants at that time, revealed as the master mind behind the great false system, which is Antichrist, (2 Thess 2:8), “[Then, following these events] there was a great earthquake  [a revolution unprecedented], such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were upon the face of the earth [a complete and utter collapse of society into total anarchy].” Rev 16:18

We believe, that is some Bible Students believe, that the “great earthquake” which is to come, which shall shortly shake the very foundations of society, “this present evil world”, is not only in reference to the great revolution or time of trouble coming, but also is in reference to a literal earthquake soon to come.

“The term earthquake is used to symbolically represent revolution—it is in this sense of the word that it is used throughout the book of Revelation. What we are to look for then will be great revolution, the great earthquake, the great shaking of the present institutions, which will overthrow everything that is not of the Lord’s establishment and approval (Heb 12:26, 27). Why then should we think of or speak of literal earthquakes do you ask? Because in the divine order there seems to be a harmony between the literal and the figurative; literal earthquakes have their part to play, too, in the great program. Not only are they to serve the church as signs corroborating the prophecies respecting the approach of the great day of trouble, which closes this age, but they also serve another purpose—a particular purpose. The scriptures clearly intimate that our physical earth has not yet attained the grand perfection which the Lord designs it should have, to be fit for the blessed ones whose home, as the paradise of God, it shall be throughout all eternity.” (Harvest Gleanings 3, page 810)

With this in mind we see the Great Pyramid of Giza as representing the one true kingdom of the Lord soon to be established throughout the earth, and the two adjoining pyramids, (along with all the other smaller pyramids of lesser note) as Satan’s vain attempts to counterfeit that kingdom, the large kingdoms of this world (mountains) and the smaller kingdoms (hills).

“The identity of the Great Pyramid of Giza to the exclusion of all the other pyramids, as the one referred to in the Holy Scriptures, is shown by an allusion to one of its characteristic distinctions, namely, its socket foundations. This allusion is found in Job 38:4-7, the questions which Jehovah addresses to Job refers first to the earth, and then, while still appearing to be connected with the earth, clearly alludes to the erection of the Great Pyramid, the type of the New Creation.

The Scripture reads thus: “Where were thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare if thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou know? Or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the sockets thereof made to sink? (i.e. where are its foundations fastened?) Or who laid the corner-stone thereof: when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?”

The earth’s foundations are invisible unseen to the eye, nevertheless they are very much real and felt by all they are the very forces which govern the earth’s placement in the cosmos, the solar system, the universe, invisible forces of motion termed centrifugal and centripetal, they are component forces of gravity, invisible forces of nature implemented by the architect and creator of natures laws, as it is written, “He stretches out the north over empty space; he hangs the earth on nothing.” Job 26:7 Thus symbolically one might say that the earth’s foundations or sockets are made to sink it into place establishing its placement in the cosmos, however upon further examination our text appears to be making a still further allusion to a specific object or structure which not only literally possesses “socket foundations made to sink”, but likewise possesses a “corner stone” at its top.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is such a structure in fact the only pyramid structure possessing such socket-foundations. Commenting upon this fact, Dr. Seiss declares: “Nor is it only to the pyramidal form in general that the allusion is, but to a particular pyramid. By that strange reference to the sunken feet or planting of the foundations in ‘sockets,’ we are conducted directly to the Great Pyramid of Giza. Two socketed “encastrements,” “socles,” shoes, or incised sinking’s, into the rock were found under two of its base corners by the French savants in 1799, which were again uncovered and described by Colonel Howard Vyse, in 1837. And as God here speaks of such a fastening down of the foundations in general, Professor C. Piazzi Smyth was persuaded that there were corresponding ‘sockets‘ at the other two base corners, and when search was made for them in 1865, they were found by Messrs, Aiton and Inglis, assisted by Professor Smyth. Here then are the whole four ‘sockets‘ or fastened foundations. Nothing of the sort exists at any other known pyramid. They are among the distinctive marks of the Great Pyramid of Giza. They are the enduring tracks of its feet cut into the living rock, by which almighty God himself identifies it for us as the original image from which his own description of the creation is drawn”. (Great Pyramid Passages page 49)

What is the significance of this you might ask?

It is these “sunken feet”, unique only to the Great Pyramid, positioned at the four corners, “cut into the living rock” (a “sure foundation”) beneath the pyramid that will sustain the great pyramid in the event of an earthquake. Thus the Lord has provided for the Great Pyramid of Giza to be an everlasting memorial and testament of the one TRUE Kingdom of God. “And in the days of these kings (the various false kingdoms of this world purporting to be Christian nations, but who in truth are but counterfeits) the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed…it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and shall stand forever. “(Dan 2:44)

Why? Because it has been established upon a “sure foundation”, the Word of God as it has been given to us in Christ Jesus our Lord, “For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.” (1 Cor 3:11) To the Church pictured in the Pyramid he is a “sure foundation” a sanctuary, to the world “a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence” (Isa 8:14) The other pyramids (specifically the two adjoining the Great Pyramid) typifying the kingdoms of this world shall be, we believe as the Lord so stated in Jer 51:25, “rolled down from the rocks” crumble to pieces in the great earthquake (a literal earthquake soon to take place) due to the fact that they have no sure foundation, they possess no socket foundations to support their great mass in the event of an earthquake.

With the conclusion of our first five posts we believe we have sufficient evidence which proves conclusively that the Great Pyramid is of divine intention, that it is biblically supported, and that it was built to fulfill a divine purpose, thus a study of its testimony would serve only to strengthen the faith of the Lord’s people. In our next post we shall begin with our examination of the general design and construction of the Great Pyramid to see how and in what matter its construction relates to the plan of God symbolically; upon the conclusion of which we shall attempt to explain the chronology of the Great Pyramid and how its testimony collaborates the Scriptural testimony.

Continued with next post.