“In the center (beneath the pyramid structure), the rock core is left standing but is terraced, so a rock outcropping with steps is left in the middle (depicted by the red line in the above illustration). This is important, because the rock core has a different coefficient of shrinkage than the stone blocks that are used for the pyramid body. If you don’t consider this fact, the structure will develop displacements and fissures. To avoid this you have to interlock the building stones with the bedrock, to accomplish this “headers” are used, which are long stones reaching into the rock and tying them together.” (“Building the Great Pyramid”)
“Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had been removed, down to the solid bedrock of the plateau, the whole pyramid site was open-cast quarried into blocks, leaving a square core for the center of the pyramid (the core is approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25 feet high. This of course is speculation as there is no way to actually determine the true height and size of the core structure nor the exact number of terrace levels as this central rock core is completely buried beneath the pyramid itself, at best this could only be estimated). This core gives the pyramid stability from the downward and horizontal forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of blocks of stones that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the prevailing north-west winds that exert enormous pressures on the huge areas of the pyramid’s faces, thus increasing these forces further.
The blocks which were quarried were then stored outside a low wall; made of mortared stone that surrounds the core (the outside dimensions of the wall are approx. 887.3 feet square). Today there still remains the foundation of this wall on the north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an average distance of 65 feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.”
Several different methods have been suggested as to how precisely the pyramid site was leveled.
One such method which has been suggested is that it was “accomplished by flooding the entire area inside the wall (referred to above) with water, leaving just the high spots. These then were cut down to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was released and the high spots again were cut down to the water’s surface. This process was repeated until the entire pyramid site, between the core and the four walls, was leveled down to the base of the pyramid’s platform. (Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid: Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It: How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built by Socrates G. Taseos)
Another suggests that “once the proper site was chosen and the surface sand removed a grid of interconnecting channels was cut into the bedrock. These trenches were flooded with water. They were able to make level marks on the rock walls. The walls could then be cut to the same height, making the top surface level. The trenches were then filled with rubble”.
The difficulty with these first two theories is the fact that the plateau upon which the pyramid resides sits about 130 feet above the Nile valley thus it would prove quite a feat indeed to pump that much water up to this height especially so if the first method suggested were utilized this would require pumping enough up the incline to flood 13 acres and at a height sufficient to cover the central rock core which it is presumptuously stated to be about 46 feet above the plateau, that’s quite a large above ground swimming pool, a monumental task in itself.
A somewhat more reasonable approach however which has been suggested would be that “the builders installed posts (batter boards, as depicted in the second diagram below) at regular intervals. A line, leveled with plumb bobs, was then pulled taut across the posts at a reference mark to ensure alignment, and then they could excavate the foundation down to the reference marks”.
“The only instrument for leveling known to the ancient Egyptians was the square level. This is a right-angled isosceles triangle made from wood. This tool is made in the shape of the letter “A” and looks like a triangle ruler or a builder’s square. A plumb-line is suspended from the top of the connected corners. If the plumb bob coincides with a mark in the middle of the crossbeam, the surface area on which the two legs stand is level. By placing this triangle on stone, these could be easily leveled”.
Isosceles triangle made from wood with plumb-line and plumb bob, which points to the mark on the cross beam.
“For establishing equal levels over large distances, this triangle was laid on top of a beam. First the triangle was checked and adjusted, so it would lie horizontally and level on the beam. Then, by fixing upon a leveling staff in the distance, differences in height could be noticed and corrected. Field tests showed that up to a distance of 45m a difference of 1 centimeter could be detected. Because of the limited eye sight of humans larger distances could not be covered. But because it is possible to sight on both sides from this kind of measuring station, it probably was possible to correctly level distances of up to 90 meters”.
“The base area and the outer fundament are leveled, and then the pyramid corners and the edges are measured. For the corner stone’s a special bed (or socket) is cut, so they can support and absorb the enormous weight of the pyramid that presses down and sideward’s. (The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid known to possess these socket-foundations). The fundament (or foundation) is laid down with a slight gradient of 2-3° inwards, any Crevices or cracks on the plateau are filled and if necessary blocked up with large stones, so the basalt pavement could later be laid on a level surface.” (“Building the Great Pyramid”)
Here we have an illustration of one of the crevices or fissures found on the plateau. “According to the account of Col. Howard Vyse, this fissure, the hole in the ground to the left was discovered in 1837 A.D. and had originally been filled with ruble stone-work, and covered over with large inset stones, one of which may be seen in the photograph, partly fallen in. Over these inset stones which were flush with the leveled rock, the beautifully fitted pavement had been laid.” It was believed at the time that this fissure might be connected to some sort of subterranean chamber under the Pyramid at one time alluded to by the Greek historian Herodotus, however after a thorough investigation no passage was found and it was determined that there was no subterranean passage in connection with the Great Pyramid save that of the well-known Descending Passage leading to the Pit, a hundred feet below the base of the Pyramid. (Great Pyramid Passages, Vol. 1 Page 136)
Continued with next post.