Browsed by
Month: April 2017

Creation, Part 7

Creation, Part 7

In our previous post we had mentioned that as the shrouded world began to cool the various vapors comprised of waters and minerals held in suspension above the earth would begin to condense and as their mass increased would naturally be drawn to the point of least resistance, the two magnetic poles, here the deluge of waters and minerals would rush down one after another until they had completely covered the earth in waters.

During each of these long days, which we contend were of seven thousand years each, a certain work progressed, as told in Genesis; each possibly ending with a deluge, which worked radical changes and prepared the way for still further steps of creation and preparation for man. This Vailian Theory ( or “Annular System” as referred to by its author Prof. L N. Vail) assumes that the last of these “rings” was freest from minerals and all impurities–pure water; that it had not yet broken and come down in the day of Adam’s creation, but that it completely overspread the earth as a translucent veil above the atmosphere (in other words by this time the last of the various rings circling the earth had disappeared, the last spreading out both north and south until it finally eloped the entire earth). Gen 1:7 It served, as does the whitened glass of a hot-house (greenhouse), to equalize the temperature–so that the climate at the poles would be little, if any, different from that at the equator. Under such equable conditions, tropical plants would grow exponentially everywhere, as geology shows that they did; and storms, which result from rapid changes of temperature, must then have been unknown; and for similar reasons there could then have been no rain. The Scriptural account agrees with this; declaring that there was no rain on the earth until the deluge; that vegetation was watered by a mist rising from the earth–a moist, or humid, hot-house-like condition. (Gen 2:5, 6)

Following the deluge in Noah’s day came great changes, accompanied by a great shortening of the span of human life. With the breaking of the watery veil the hot-house condition ceased: the equatorial path of the sun became hotter, while at the poles the change must have been terrific–an almost instantaneous transition from a hot-house temperature to arctic coldness.

Corroborations of this sudden change of temperature have been found in the arctic region: Two complete mastodons were found embedded in clear, solid ice, which evidently froze them in quickly. Tons of elephant tusks have been found in the same frozen Siberia, too inhospitably cold, within the range of history, for elephants, mastodons, etc. An antelope was found similarly embedded in a huge block of ice in that arctic region. That it was suddenly overwhelmed is clearly demonstrated by the fact that grass was found in its stomach undigested, indicating that the animal had eaten it only a few minutes before being frozen to death–and that in a location where no grass could now grow.

This sudden downpour of water–this sudden breaking of the envelope which held the warmth of the earth and sun equably–produced the great ice-fields and ice-mountains of the arctic regions, from which every year hundreds of icebergs break loose and float southward toward the equator. So far as we can judge, this has been the procedure for centuries, but is continually growing less. Here we see the Ice Age, or Glacial Period, of the geologists, when great icebergs, borne by swift currents, cut deep crevasses throughout North America, distinctly traceable in the hills; northwestern Europe, too, bears the same testimony in its hills. But not so southeastern Europe, Armenia and vicinity– the cradle of our race, where also the ark was built, and near which, on Mount Ararat, it finally rested.

The testimony in general would seem to imply that the ark floated in a comparatively quiet eddy, aside from the general rush of the waters. This is indicated by the exceedingly heavy alluvial deposit declared to be present in that entire region. Evidently waters from the North and South Poles deluged the whole earth, while the cradle of the race was specially dealt with by first depressing, and then at the proper time elevating it.

Knowing the end from the beginning, the Lord so timed the introduction of man upon the earth that the last of the rings came down in a deluge just at the proper time to destroy the corrupted race in Noah’s day, and thus to introduce the present dispensation, known in the Scriptures asthis present evil world.”

In this particular instance we note the scriptural account as taken from the Ferrar Fenton Paraphrased Translation.

For this they willfully forget: that by the intention of God the skies (the firmament or atmosphere) existed from of old, and the earth with water above (that is, above the atmosphere) and water below (below the earth, i.e. underground), arranged for the purpose of God, by means of which the then existing world (age or epoch) perished, by the water having rushed down.” (2 Pet 3:5, 6)

The removal of the watery envelope not only gave changing seasons of summer and winter, and opened the way for violent storms, but it also made possible the rainbow, which was first seen after the flood, this because previously the direct rays of the sun could not so penetrate the watery canopy as to give the rainbow effect. Gen 9:12-17

Gen 1:2 continued, “Now the earth was without form and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

Explain what is meant by theface of the deeptheface of the waters?

Possible explanation:

What is meant here by “the deep” and “the face of the waters? Without a doubt there were waters ABOVE the earth and waters UPON the earth. This is obvious from the Genesis statement. The great deep, therefore, must have particular reference to the waters above the earth — waters that could have been held up only by reason of the fact that they were revolving rapidly in an orbit about the earth. As soon as they would become inactive they would necessarily fall to earth. The lighter one of these rings would necessarily be farthest out from the earth and nearest the sun.

The time came when the spirit of YEHOVAH God, that is to say, His power, moved upon or took action upon the face of the waters, and the light penetrated this great deep or canopy that surrounded the earth. What this really means is that YEHOVAH God caused the sun’s rays to shine upon the face of the waters or great deep, ILLUMINATING THEM. YEHOVAH pronounced the light good, and the light YEHOVAH called day and the darkness he called night, and YEHOVAH divided the light from the darkness. That was the beginning of the division of day and night. So far as the Bible discloses, such constituted the work of the first creative day, and concludes with the words: “And the evening and the morning were the first day.” There is NO evidence to warrant the conclusion that at this time the light had penetrated to the earth. (Hope of Israel Ministries, Ecclesia of YEHOVAH)

As illustrated in the diagram above it is important to understand that the “deep” consisted not only of those waters in a liquid state, those found upon the surface of the earth, but likewise those waters found above the earth those in a vaporous or gaseous state, together these waters comprised “the deep”. Now in considering the statement “darkness was upon the face of the water(s),” surely one would not suggest that the sun’s rays i.e. light had never shown upon the outer surface of these waters.

No, in this instance we are to consider “the face of the waters” as taken from God’s perspective beneath the canopy, as his spirit hovered over the deep (over the ocean of liquid waters, yet beneath those which were suspended above them, those in a gaseous state). It is here where no light was visible that the Lord made the statement, “Let there be Light”.

With this general view of creation before our minds, we will with our preceding posts turn to the Genesis account, and endeavor to harmonize these conjectures with its statements.

Creation, Part 6

Creation, Part 6

In our previous post we had hinted at a cataclysmic event which was shortly to take place which we believe would rectify (that is for the time being) the runaway greenhouse effect that was overtaking our newly forming world. Now as stated before some have suggested that the early primordial atmosphere could not have been as thick as we have suggested due to its close proximity to the sun and its solar winds, note the following remarks as taken from “Early Earth’s Magnetic Field Was a Weakling” by Andrea Thompson,

“A recent study suggests that “the protective magnetic field shrouding the early Earth was likely only half as strong as it is today.” In truth little is known about the magnetic field as it existed just after the Earth formed, around 4.5 billion years ago. It is the magnetic field which keeps solar particles from eating away at the molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere.

In the past, not only was the earth’s magnetic field weaker, the sun was likely rotating more rapidly and therefore spinning off a stronger solar wind and a magnetopause that was likely much closer to Earth. Today it is at a distance of about 10.7 Earth radii, but then it would likely have been around 5 Earth radii out (Earth’s average radius is about 4,960 miles, or 6,370 km).”

“That means that the particles streaming out of the sun were much more likely to reach Earth. The implication of that situation is that “it’s very likely the solar wind was removing volatile molecules, like hydrogen, from the atmosphere at a much greater rate than we’re losing them today… the loss of hydrogen implies a loss of water as well.

In turn, if a lot of water was stripped away early in Earth’s history, to get the amount of water that we have now (not to mention the amount that completely covered the earth at the beginning of day one of creation), the planet must have startedwith either a fairly robust inventory of water,” and or it was possibly being continuously replenished by further impacts from comets and asteroids, as well as small planetesimals.”

Mars minuscule atmosphere is one example of what happens when a planet lacks a significant magnetic field to protect itself from the sun’s radiation. However as someone said, Observation, the final judge of scientific truth proves some things are not always as expected. As discussed in our previous post Venus which completely lacks a magnetic field, at least none which has been discovered as of yet defies this assumption, and retains its atmosphere.


Pictured above is a depiction of a small planetesimal possibly Theia on approach impacting the early earth’s atmosphere.

According to another study, the moon came into existence after several planet-size space bodies (planetesimals) smashed into the nascent Earth one after the other, with the final one actually forming our satellite, while several impacts repeatedly blew off our planet’s atmosphere.

Until now, scientists thought it was unlikely that the early Earth could lose its atmosphere because of a giant moon-forming impact. But the new research, based on recent studies showing that at its infancy our planet had magma oceans and was spinning so rapidly that a day was only two or three hours long, argues that this may have been possible.”

Research conducted by planetary scientist Sarah Stewart, a professor at Harvard University along with several of her fellow colleagues argued that the moon is actually a giant merger of bits and pieces of our own planet, partially destroyed by a catastrophic collision with a space body 4.5 billion years ago.

Back then, the Earth had a two- or three-hour day, she said, and the impact made it throw off enough material to coalesce into what became our satellite, making it the Earth’s geochemical twin. This ultra-rapid spin is one of the important conditions necessary to make the atmospheric loss theory work, Stewart said. The other criterion is the presence of terrestrial magma oceans — and this hypothesis has now got support thanks to new data obtained from volcanoes.

Volcanic Memory

Two of her colleagues, who presented their work at the 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, sampled elements from volcanoes in Iceland, which have rocks that are among the oldest on Earth and thus retain the geo-chemical signatures of the Earth’s so-called lower-most mantle, closest to the planet’s core. They also looked at elements found in volcanoes that sample the upper mantle, such as mid-ocean ridge basalt’s at the bottom of the Atlantic. They found that elements in the deep mantle that retain a very ancient chemistry, from the times of the Earth’s formation, are very different from those in the upper mantle we see today.

In particular, the presence of two noble gases, helium and neon, is very different today from what it used to be, Stewart said. Both these gases are very rare on today’s Earth, but they are found in the solar system in abundance. And as “documented” by the deep Earth, when our planet was just forming it contained much more helium and neon as well.

“The implication is that [the lower-most mantle] hasn’t been completely overprinted by subsequent evolution, and it’s helping us pinpoint events that had to happen to lead to the planet we see today.

So how and why did these gases disappear?

While helium is not gravitationally bound to the Earth, neon is, and it needs a powerful “kick” to escape. “For such a dramatic change to happen you can’t do that with just open loss off the top (as suggested in our first study concerning the early earth’s weak magnetic field) — instead, you need to eject the whole atmosphere in a catastrophic type of event, a giant impact.

Besides atmospheric loss caused by impacts that melt all rock to create magma oceans, to get to the present-day neon-to-helium ratio Earth would have to suffer multiple impacts. In other words, the Earth probably (formed and) lost its primordial atmosphere multiple times, and the magma oceans were melting more than once. The final impact, led to the creation of the moon, and resulted in the ratio of the gases we have today. “One single impact is not sufficient, there had to be at least two, probably more, to make that work.”

No Mixing?

The idea that stages of Earth’s growth are recorded in chemistry is relatively new. Previously, researchers argued that during our planet’s formation (known as accretion) with a moon-forming impact, the proto-Earth was melted and mixed to the point that it “forgot” its growth — all the data was erased. “But now what we’ve learned is that data wasn’t erased, and it’s exciting because now we have clues to the stages of growth,” Stewart said. She added that the next step would be to calculate exactly under what impact conditions the early atmosphere actually might have been blown off.

But if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an impact, how did the Earth get its atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one we have today?

The currently accepted idea for how the moon was formed involves the impact or accretion of a Mars-size object with or by the proto-earth. When two objects of this size collide, large amounts of heat are generated, of which quite a lot is retained. (The amount of heat that can arise through simple accretionary processes, bringing small bodies together to form the proto-earth, is large: on the order of 10,000 kelvins about 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This single episode could have largely melted the outermost several thousand kilometers of the planet…In other words there was no shortage of heat in the early earth, the planet’s inability to cool off quickly would once again result in out-gassing and in the production of another primordial atmosphere similar to the last.”

The Giant Impactor Theory (sometimes called The Ejected Ring Theory): proposes that a planetesimal (or small planet) the size of Mars struck the Earth just after the formation of the solar system, ejecting large volumes of heated material from the outer layers of both objects. A disk of orbiting material was formed, and this matter eventually stuck together to form the Moon in orbit around the Earth. This theory can explain why the Moon is made mostly of rock and how the rock was excessively heated. Furthermore, we see evidence in many places in the solar system that such collisions were common late in the formative stages of the solar system.”

Stewart says that after the last giant smashup that finally formed the moon, the Earth continued to form, accreting planetesimals — mountain-size space rocks that stuck to it, making it bigger. “These planetesimals delivered some of Earth’s *volatiles,” she says, eventually bringing the atmosphere to the state it is in today. Volatiles are elements able to escape very easily.

Ian Crawford of Birkberk College, University of London, who was not involved in the study, said that the theory sounded plausible “because multiple impacts are expected to happen in the context we think the solar system was put together.” “It’s true that each time you have a giant impact you expect a magma ocean to form. And the early planets are expected to have a transient atmosphere, so it is possible that the atmosphere would be released if the magma ocean solidified.”

*In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet or moon’s crust or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane and sulfur dioxide.

(Giant Impact That Formed the Moon Blew off Earth’s Atmosphere by Katia Moskvitch,

Returning once again to our previous question, if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an impact, how did the Earth get its atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one we have today? As stated the processes which created the previous atmospheres would once again begin anew, viz. outgassing’s, volcanic activity, impacts and etc. in fact not long after the moons formation another (hypothesized) cataclysmic event  which was taking place millions of miles from earth would have a direct (and beneficial) affect upon the earth.

“About 4 to 3.8 billion years ago a period of intense comet and asteroid bombardment is thought to have peppered all the planets including the Earth. Many of the numerous craters found on the Moon and other bodies in the Solar System record this event. One theory holds that a gravitational surge caused by the orbital interaction of Jupiter and Saturn sent Neptune careening into the ring of comets in the outer Solar System. The disrupted comets were sent in all directions and collided with the planets. These water-rich objects may have provided much of the water in the Earth’s oceans. The record of this event is all but lost on the Earth because our planet’s tectonic plate system and active erosion ensure that the surface is constantly renewed.” (“The Late Heavy Bombardment Ends”,

With these continuous disruptions and impacts the heat generated by the earth would once again turn most of the volatile elements to a gaseous state which would then begin to form a thick canopy of clouds about the earth, only this time having acquired the added mass and cores of the various planetesimals especially the last great impact from Theia the earth’s gravitational as well as its magnetic field would be greatly increased the latter protecting it further from the sun’s solar winds.

During the igneous (Azoic) period those vapors coming closer to the earth, and being drawn by gravity, were still held off the surface by great heat, but as the earth cooled, and these vapors were allowed to condense, the masses increased in weight and there would be falls from the upper masses to the cooling surface. Undoubtedly at first the water was changed to steam and returned to the atmosphere. Deluge after deluge would follow from the enshrouding mass, and slowly the earth’s surface became plastic, depressing under impact and accumulations here, with resulting rises over there, and liquids flowing into the depressions. Slowly the plastic condition firmed until the surface could support the further deluges from aerial sources, and the water would remain to collect in the lower depressions (Most likely as boiling caldrons).”

One after another these were precipitated upon the earth’s surface. These deluges from descending rings would naturally reach the earth from the direction of the two magnetic poles, where there would be least resistance, because farthest from the equator, the center of the centrifugal force of the earth’s motion.

The breaking down of these “rings,” long periods apart, furnished numerous deluges (floods), and piled strata upon strata over the earth’s surface. The rush of waters from the poles toward the equator would distribute variously the sand and mud and minerals, the water strongly mineralized thus covering the entire surface of the earth, just as described at the beginning of the narrative of Genesis. (Compare Gen 1:2 and 1:9)

In our next post we will jump ahead only God knows how many millions of years to Day One of the creation.


The Great Pyramid, Part 18

The Great Pyramid, Part 18


“The Subterranean Chamber is by far the largest chamber in the Pyramid, being, approximately, 27 feet from north to south, by 46 feet from east to west. Its area, therefore, is more than double that of the King’s Chamber, which measures 17 feet by 34 feet. Although the roof and walls of this large Subterranean Chamber are by no means smooth, they are for the most part square and level; but the floor is extremely rugged and unfinished, and is much encumbered with stones and sand.” (Page 176)

“While the roof and four walls of the Subterranean Chamber have been made fairly even, the floor, on the contrary, has been left in an extremely broken and unfinished condition, by reason of which the name ‘Bottomless Pit” has been aptly applied by some to this chamber. It is a fitting termination to the long low Descending Passage which leads down to it.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 91)

“In very early times, the Descending Passage appears to have been sufficiently clear to allow of venturesome travelers making occasional visits to the Subterranean Chamber; but in 1763, Davison, when describing the Descending Passage, wrote: ‘At the end of one hundred and thirty-one feet [from the junction of the First Ascending Passage] I found it so filled up with earth, that there was no possibility of proceeding.” It remained in this condition until the year 1817, when, by the efforts of M. Caviglia, access to the Subterranean Chamber was restored; and at the same time the whole length of the Well-shaft was cleared. M. Caviglia was afterward for a short time in the employment of Col. Howard Vyse.

Caviglia did not completely clear out the Descending Passage, for, twenty years afterward (in 1837), Col. Howard Vyse, in his description of the state in which he found the Great Pyramid previous to commending his extensive operations on it and the other Pyramids of Gizeh, wrote that, though open, it was ‘much encumbered with stones and rubbish.” This no doubt explains why he measured the passage along the roof-line, and not along the floor. When Professor C. Piazzi Smyth visited the Pyramid in 1865, the passage below its juncture with the First Ascending Passage appears to have again become so blocked with dust and large stones, that he did not visit the lower sections at all. The measurements of these parts given in his Pyramid books were derived from Col. Howard Vyse’s publication, and are, unfortunately, inaccurate.

In 1881, Professor Flinders Petrie caused the obstructing debris to be removed sufficiently for him to descend. It was during these operations that he discovered the large granite stone, which lies on the floor a little lower than the entrance to the First Ascending Passage. He did not disturb it. The parts which he found most encumbered were those at and below the granite block, and the lowermost thirty feet of the slope where the rains had washed down much sand. He did not have this material carried out, but instructed his men to distribute it more or less uniformly deep along the length of the passage as well as in the Subterranean Chamber. Thus we see that the floor of this Descending Passage has never been so thoroughly cleared, at least in modern times, as it now is.” “For the first time known in history, an accurate continuous floor-measurement of the passage from end to end was now made possible.” (Page 145, 171)

“During their first inspection of the Great Pyramid in the Spring of 1909 the Edgar’s had instructed their Arab assistant Judah to employ men to clear out the stones and sand which had accumulated in the Subterranean Chamber and Descending Passage, this in order to better facilitate a more accurate measurement of the Passage and Chamber, prior to this an American excavator had previously cleared out about thirty feet of the lower end of the passage as well as the lower end of the Well-shaft, but by the time of their visit the passage was once again blocked with debris throughout the greater part of its length, with the lower third completely filled again. Apparently it was much easier to throw any excess refuge down into the lower end of the Descending Passage and into the Pit than it was to bring it up the passage discarding it outside the Pyramid. Later during their second visit in 1912 they would once again embark on a further cleaning and restoration of the subterranean Chamber, as pictured in the black and white photo below. The color photo is of a more recent restoration which I believe took place around 1998-99.” (Pages 143, 181)

Personally I believe the debris adds character to the Subterranean Chamber and to what it signifies and that it was a mistake to remove all the debris, luckily however we still possess photos such as those taken by the Edgar’s above to remind us of its original condition prior to excavations. The true significance and meanings to the interior passages and chambers did not fully come to realization until just about the time of the Harvest Message and thus I believe the Lord intended that what we would take (i.e. comprehend) with regards to the mystery of the Pyramid and its interior chambers and passages should be based upon what was revealed at this particular time prior to any excavations and or etc.

Archaeologist are fawn of excavating sites meticulously believing that the true significance of a fine is hidden beneath the debris covering the site, but in this particular instance I believe the debris is a central element in the visualization of the chambers theme, the unfinished, broken and refuge filled chamber uniquely represents the abode of the dead, the final resting place of the refuge of the earth, the bottomless pit.

“The Subterranean Chamber of the Great Pyramid is roughly halved into two parts-an eastern and western. In the eastern half, the floor is excavated much lower than in the western. The large deep shaft is approximately in the center of the eastern portion. At the northeast corner of the chamber the floor is 12 feet, and at the southeast corner 14 feet, below the roof; but at the middle of the east wall, opposite the shaft, it is 17 feet below the roof. In the western half, which begins about 21 feet from the east wall, the rocky floor rises in high receding mounds, which reach to within about 10 inches of the roof. In our photograph which was taken with the camera erected near the east wall and pointing directly west (See black and white photo at top of page), it will be noticed that these mounds lie north and south, and are divided by a narrow trench, two and half feet wide, which inclines up the middle of the chamber, rather to the north of the center, and terminates with a width of two feet at the west wall. John is sitting at the entrance to this trench on the north side, while Judah reclines on top of the north mound.

At the north end of the west wall at the roof, we disclosed in our clearing operations a small and roughly squared recess. In appearance it is as if a small westward passage had been contemplated, but had been abandoned shortly after work on it had commended, as it is only from six to eighteen inches deep, the inner end being very irregular. Adjoining the wall to the north of the recess, there is a peculiar upright ridge of rock reaching from the floor to within 13 inches of the roof. It runs parallel with and about three feet from the north wall of the chamber; the long narrow space between the two is not unlike a horse-stall.” (Page 181)

In the black and white photo below is shown one of the Edgar’s attendants (Stanley) kneeling at the north–west end of this small ridge of the rock running along the north wall, he is looking directly at the small recess cut into the rear of the Chamber.

“In the unfinished floor of the Pit (as the Subterranean Chamber is generally referred to) appears the large, square mouth of a deep vertical shaft (pictured below in the colored picture). We (that is the Edgar brothers and their attendants) had always to avoid walking too near its edge, for the rough uneven floor of the Pit is covered with loose crumbling debris…” (Page 59)

“We should prefer the removal of every vestige of this debris, that we might examine and photograph the original contour of the rough floor, but the expense stands in the way. We have had some clearing done, however, in front of the doorway of the little south passage, and also at the west wall, which was almost entirely hidden by a bank of the debris seven or eight feet deep. This obscuring bank (referred to by Professor Flinders Petrie) having been cleared away, the west wall is now exposed to view; and we find that for a width of 13 feet in the middle of this end of the chamber, the floor is fairly well leveled, and is about five and a half feet below the roof, leaving almost sufficient headroom for one of average height to stand upright.

The larger stones removed by our men are stacked elsewhere in the chamber. The sand and small stones were thrown into the lower depths of the vertical shaft in the middle of the floor at the eastern end; for this portion of the shaft is a modern excavation by Mr. Perring, as explained in the first volume of Pyramids of Gizeh by Col. Howard Vyse. The upper, original, part of the vertical shaft (which we refrained from filling) is peculiarly arranged in two sections.

The ancient workmen cut a square hole in the floor, the bottom of which is fairly level and at a vertical distance of about 22 feet below the roof of the Subterranean Chamber. (It is not possible to state a definite depth for the hole below the chamber’s floor, for this floor is so irregular, as can be judged from our photographs, that any figures would be misleading.) And from one corner of this hole they cut another, smaller, square hole for a further depth of three and a half feet. The first hole, or shaft, is approximately seven feet square, and the second approximately five feet square. (Only approximate measures can be secured, for there is no part of the Subterranean Chamber clearly defined.) The sides of these ancient shafts lie nearly diagonally to the sides of the chamber. From the floor of the lower, second, shaft Mr. Perring sunk his irregularly rounded excavation. (Page 176)

In the first photo above we are standing on the opposite side of the vertical shaft looking north toward the square doorway of the Small Horizontal Passage by which entrance was gained to the Chamber.

“…Directly opposite this doorway… we perceived by the light of our candles another low doorway (second photo). On investigating this we found it to be the beginning of a small-bore passage, running horizontally southward for fully 50 feet to a blind end.” (Page 59)

Both the mouth of the deep vertical shaft and the small blind passage located at the bottom left hand corner of the south wall can be seen in the black and white photo above, however since that time due to safety concerns a gate has been erected around the deep vertical shaft in order to keep anyone from stumbling into the shaft, likewise you will note that a gate has been placed over the small blind passage as seen in the first photo below.

Below we have two photos the first is a view of what you would see immediately upon stepping (i.e. crawling) through the short little horizontal passage at the end of the Descending Passage into the Subterranean Chamber and looking toward the south west rear corner of the chamber, the second photo is a view from inside the chamber standing in front of the 50 foot little blind passage looking back toward the north wall and the entrance into the chamber.

The illustration below is a cross section of the Subterranean Chamber looking west, showing the 50 foot blind passage, and the vertical shaft which was dug beneath the Chamber extending into the bedrock. Extending another 36 feet below this vertical shaft is Perring’s shaft.

“Col. Howard Vyse had instructed Mr. Perring to excavate this deep shaft to test the truth of a theory which claimed, on the supposed authority of Herodotus, that a still lower and secret subterranean chamber existed, in which Cheops, the accredited builder of the Great Pyramid, was said to have been interred. But after penetrating to a considerable depth without result, the work was abandoned because of the lack of pure air. About a thousand feet to the southeast of the Great Pyramid, there is a large and very deep sepulchral pit, now named ‘Campbell’s Tomb,” which was cleared out by Col. Howard Vyse. Professor C. Piazzi Smyth proves that this tomb more nearly answers Herodotus’ description of Cheops’ burial place, and Professor Flinders Petrie concurs with him in this opinion.” (Page 181)


“Campbell’s Tomb is a shaft tomb located about thirty meters west of the Sphinx enclosure. The tomb is at the bottom of a fifty-foot shaft sunk into the quarry floor and has been dated to about 600 B.C. Sand filled the shaft until its excavation in the 1830s.” The second illustration above was taken from Colonel Vyse’s notes.

In conclusion the Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it is often referred to, represents the death state, oblivion, described in Eccl 9:10. “Whatsoever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work or device or knowledge or wisdom in the grave where you are going.” The Bible refers to death as the pit of destruction”.

But You, O God, shall bring them down to the pit of destruction; Bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half their days; But I will trust in you.” Psa 55:23

For Sheol cannot thank You, Death cannot praise you; those who go down to the pit cannot hope for your truth.” Isa 38:18                                                                  

The Pit chamber is an appropriate picture of the death state. It is large, and there is no way around it, and in its original condition (with all the debris remaining) the entire floor gravitated (tilted) toward the Vertical shaft. The Subterranean Chamber symbolizes the natural end of man’s downward course, death, destruction.”

The wages of sin is death.” Rom 6:23

(The Great Pyramid: Ancient Wonder Modern Mystery, Page 19)

In our next post we will examine the First Ascending Passage.


The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 3

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 3

Our Lord’s ministry covered 3 ½ years, ending with his crucifixion, at the time of the Passover, in the spring of A.D. 33. In this he exactly fulfilled the prophecy concerning the remaining or last week (seven years) of promised favor, which says: “AFTER (7 and 62) sixty-nine weeks shall Messiah be cut off [“be slain”, Douay translation] but not for himself, in the midst of the week [the remaining 70th] he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease.”

The sacrifices which were offered according to the Law there ceased; not that animals, incense, etc., were not offered thereafter by the priest, for they continued to be offered year by year, but rather that they were no longer accepted by God, and were in no sense sacrifices for sin. The true sacrifice having come, our Lord Jesus having “put away sin by the sacrifice of himself” (Heb 9:26) God could no longer recognize other offerings as sacrifices, nor any necessity for them.

Understand this here and now Christ most certainly did put away sin, THE SIN, by the sacrifice of himself. Remember that we ALL have been condemned to death under the ONE SIN committed by father Adam. “…Just as through ONE MAN sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned” (Rom 5:12) That is to say that we by heredity inherited not only the sin of our father Adam, but we also inherited the just penalty, death. We are not so much condemned because of our own sins, which are predominantly do to the fall and to heredity, as we are for the sins of our father Adam.

For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation [to all]Rom 5:16; Jer 31:29

The sin of the world is the sin of Adam, for “in him all have sinned.” This left man “without strength,” but “in due time Christ died for the ungodly.” The sin made mankind “enemies,” and we were “reconciled to God by the death of his Son.” “God laid on him the iniquity of us all.” (Isa 53:6). And he “bore our sins on his own body on the tree (the cross)” 1 Pet 2:24.

For as by one man’s disobedience ALL were made sinners, so also by one man’s obedience many shall be made righteous.” Rom 5:19

However even though the sin of Adam (Adamic sin) has been fully paid for, the merit of Christ sacrifice has yet to have been applied to the world, why? Because God has seen it expedient to allow sin to continue, this in order that the Church class, the body of Christ, may be fully tested and tried. If sin and all its adversities had been removed at the beginning of the Gospel, how could the church have been properly developed?

There, at the cross, Messiah, who had been sacrificing himself for 3 ½ years, finished the work (John 19:30) and thus “made an end of sin,” made full and complete reconciliation toward God for the iniquity of men, thus bringing to all mankind an everlasting justification from sin, (even though delayed for a time) instead of the typical yearly justification, accomplished by the types for the typical people, Israel. The death of Messiah was also the “seal”, the guarantee of the fulfillment, of all the visions and prophecies of coming blessings, and “times of restitution of all things, which God had spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.” (Acts 3:21) Those promises, BOTH the Abrahamic Covenant and the New Covenant, were secured, made sure, with “his own precious blood” (Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25), which speak of better things for us than the blood of bulls and goats, even everlasting justification and putting away of sin, to all those who receive him.

And in the remainder or latter half of this 70th or last week of Jewish favor, 3 ½ years, beginning with Pentecost, his followers, “the most holyof that nation, were anointed with the Holy Spirit of God, as Messiah had been at the close of the 69th week.

Thus were fulfilled the statements of Verse 24 of this prophecy: “Seventy weeks are determined [set apart] upon THY PEOPLE and upon thy holy city, (a) to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, (b) and to seal up the vision and prophecy, (c) and to anoint the most holy (i.e. the Israelites indeed)”.

The prophecy did not show that this entire work would be deferred until the last “week”, when Messiah would be present; and doubtless they understood it to imply great moral reform on their part, which would prepare them for Messiah, and the anointing under him of their nation as the “most holy” people, to bless the world in general.

They had not learned by centuries of experience that THEY were powerless to put away sin and make reconciliation for iniquity, and that it would require a perfect ransom-sacrifice to accomplish this great work of blotting out sin and justifying the condemned. On the other hand, Daniel’s prophecy, while showing that Messiah would be cut off [die] in the midst of the last week, did not show that the mass of his people would be UNHOLY and therefore cast off, as they were, in the midst of that week. (Matt 23:38)

Another prophet had said, “He shall finish the work and CUT IT SHORT in righteousness [justly]”, (because the bulk of that nation were unfit to receive him) and all was finished in the half week (3 ½ years of Jesus’ ministry, except the anointing of the most holy.

The Last Half of the 70th Week of Daniel

What of the balance of the 70th week, the 3 ½ years of it which extended beyond the cross? Did God promise to set aside seventy weeks of favor upon Israel, and really give them but sixty-nine and a half? At first glance it has this appearance, especially when we recall that it was just five days before his death “in the midst of the week” that Jesus wept over their city and gave them up, saying, “Your house is left unto you desolate.” But not so: God knew the end from the beginning; and when he promised 70 weeks, he meant it. Hence we must look for favor upon that people for three and a half years after the crucifixion; notwithstanding they were left desolate nationally.

That the Israelites as a nation were not fit to be recipients of the chief or spiritual favor (nor of the earthly favor either) was demonstrated by their rejection of Messiah, as God had foreseen and foretold; hence it was profitless to them to continue their national testing beyond the midst of their 70th week, and it was cut short there, when they were left “desolate”, rejected from favor.

During the remaining portion (three and a half years) of their period, the favor was INCREASED, though confined to the “remnant,” the most holy, the purest or fittest, which alone it could benefit. (Isa 10:22, 23 also compare Rom 9:28). The increase of favor consisted in the fact that it gave to that remnant three and a half years of exclusive attention and ministration, under the increased advantages of the spirit dispensation, which, beginning with the disciples at Pentecost, reached probably all the ripe wheat of that nation, during that period of special favor. See Acts 2:41 and 4:4 for the results of the first few days.

It was for this reason that, though Jesus had tasted death for all, and the Gospel was to be proclaimed to all, yet his instructions to his disciples were that they BEGIN AT JERUSALEM. Nor were they to leave that special work, or offer the favor of the new dispensation (the Gospel Age) to any others, until the three and a half years of PROMISED FAVOR TO ISRAEL were fulfilled, until God specially sent it to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews. (Acts 10)

The exact date of the conversion of Cornelius, chronologist can only guess at; and hence it is variously estimated as having occurred from A.D. 37 to 40; but in view of this marked prophecy which we are now considering, we doubt not that it was in the autumn of A.D. 36; for there the 70 weeks, or 490 years, of favor upon Israel ended. Since their exclusive favor ended there, most appropriately should sending the gospel to the Gentiles mark it. Israelites were not deprived of the gospel after that, but were treated the same as the Gentiles, though prejudice no doubt placed the remainder in a less favorable position. Themost holybeing already chosen out, the gospel was no longer confined to them exclusively, but was open to every creature having an ear to hear.

After the 70 weeks came the distress and trouble mentioned in the latter clauses of Verses 26 and 27. The Roman prince came, and did destroy the city and the Temple, an, “like a flood”, he left behind him terrible waste and destruction. And Messiah, whom they rejected, has permitted various evils to befall that people ever since, and will continue to permit them “until the consummation,” until they shall have had enough, until he shall say, “Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her that her appointed time is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned.” (Isa 40:2) Meantime THAT IS DETERMINED shall be poured upon that desolate one (or cast off people) till her cup be full of sorrow, until that day when they shall say, “Bless is he that comes in the name of the Lord.” That day of Israel’s deliverance is now dawning, thank God; and though their desolation and distress are not yet at an end, each hour hastens the time when their prejudice-blinded minds shall see out of obscurity him whom they have pierced, and when they shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son, (Zech 12:10).

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 2

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 2

We now continue with our look at Daniel’s prophecy concerning the “seventy weeks”. First of all, it is quite obvious that we are not to take these as actual or literal days, because we know quite well that our Lord did not come, at his first advent, merely 490 days after the commandment to restore and build Jerusalem, an impossible task.

These seventy weeks, or four hundred and ninety days, represent four hundred and ninety years, each SYMBOLIC day representing a year. And being so fulfilled in this, the only time prophecy directly relating to the first advent, it furnishes a key to some other prophecies, which until this KEY was properly understood have kept them hidden in SYMBOLIC NUMBERS, i.e. “a day for a year” (Compare Ezek 4:6; Num 13:44) until their DUE TIME had come for solution.

This prophecy was so worded that Daniel and other Jews might, if they chose, think it incredible, and in time forget it; or it might be remembered by those who “waited for the consolation of Israel,” and who might infer the time to be SYMBOLIC, as in the case of Ezekiel. Certain it is that faithful ones knew to expect Messiah; and it is even written that all men were in expectation of him (Luke 3:15), even if they were not all able to receive him in the way he came.

It should be noticed that the 69 symbolic weeks, or 483 years, reach unto Messiah the Prince, and not to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. The Hebrew word “Messiah” corresponding to the Greek word “Christ”, signifies, The Anointed, and is a title rather than a name. Jesus was not the Anointed, the Messiah, the Christ, until after his baptism. Compare Acts 10:37, 38 and Matt 3:16. He was anointed with the Holy Spirit immediately on coming out of the water, (the symbolic representation of his surrendering or death of his personal will, for that of the Fathers). This was when he had attained manhood’s estate, which was at 30 years according to the Law, under which he was born, and to which he and every Jew was subject until he ended its dominion by fulfilling its conditions, i.e. “nailing it to his cross.”

Therefore the 69 weeks of this prophecy reach to the time of his baptism and anointing, from which time, and not before, he was the Messiah, the Christ, the Anointed. Hence the 69 weeks, or 483 years, ended in the autumn of A.D. 29. And there that portion of the prophecy was fulfilled which says: “From the going forth of the commandment to restore and build Jerusalem (Dan 9:25), unto Messiah [the Anointed] the Prince, shall be seven weeks and threescore and two [69] weeks.” Beginning there we find the seventieth week fulfilled like the rest, a year for a day.

Most writers on this subject have commenced to count this period from the 7th year of Artaxerxes, when a commission was given to Ezra (Ezra 7: 7-14), supposed to be the enforcement of the decree of Cyrus. (Ezra 1:3; 5:13; 6:1-12) It should be noted, however, that Cyrus’ order was to build the house of the Lord, the Temple and its court wall. But there was another decree granted to Nehemiah in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Neh 2:1) to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, which at that time were still un-repaired. (Neh 2:3-8; 6:15; 7:1) And it is from this decree “to restore and build Jerusalem” that this prophecy of Daniel should be dated. The entire account harmonizes with this, there being but one seeming objection, in a prophecy concerning it by Isaiah, which had said of Cyrus, not only, “He shall let go my captives,” but also, “He shall build my city.” (Isa 45:13) This apparent objection we answer thus: The word here translated “city” is “ir”, and signifies a walled place. We understand the court walls of the Temple to be referred to here; and with this facts above referred to agree. The same word “ir” is rendered “court” in 2 Kings 20:4.

The date of Nehemiah’s commission is ordinarily stated to be B.C. 445. But Dr. Hale’s work on chronology (pages 449 and 531) and Dr. Priestlie’s treatise on the “Harmony of the Evangelists” (pages 24-38) show this common view to be 9 years short, which would give B.C.454 as the true date of Nehemiah’s commission; and with this date Daniel’s prediction (Chapter 9 verse 25), concerning the decree to restore and build Jerusalem, agrees.

Since 69 weeks (7 and 62), or 483 years, reach unto Messiah (the Anointed) the Prince, therefore from this period of 69 symbolic weeks, or 483 years, we deduct 454 years B.C. as the true date of the decree to restore and build Jerusalem; and the remainder 29 A.D. should be the year in which the Anointed (Messiah) would be manifested. This is in exact accord with what we have already shown, viz. that Jesus was baptized by John and received the anointing of the Spirit A.D. 29, about October 3rd, at which time he was 30 years of age, according to the true date of his birth. (See “Our Lord’s Birth

We will continue with our next post.



The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 1

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, Part 1

The “seven-year tribulation” concept held by many professed Christians rests solely on an inconsistent application of Daniel 9:24-27, which speaks of a seventy-week period determined upon the Jewish people. Seventy weeks equals 490 days. All agree, upon the basis of Ezekiel 4:6a day for a year—that this seventy weeks equals not 490 literal days, but 490 years. Again, there is unanimity that the 69 weeks of Daniel 9:25 marks a period from a decree issued in Nehemiah’s day to the first advent of Christ. Verse 26 states that “after” the 69 weeks “shall Messiah (Christ) be cut off.” Verse 27 shows that “in the midst of the [70th] week he [Christ] shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.” Christ’s death abolished the necessity of the further offering of typical sacrifices by Israel’s priesthood.

Note well that Daniel 9:26 states “after” the 69 weeks (the seven and sixty-two weeks) “shall Messiah [Christ] be cut off.” The Hebrew word “achor” means after. It does not mean in or during. Yet those who advocate the seven year tribulation say that Messiah was cut off in or during the 69th week. This is a mistranslation of Verse 26 which plainly states “after” the 69 weeks Christ would be cut off. The 70th week is after the 69 weeks and Verse 27 clearly shows it is in the midst of the 70th week that Christ died. Therefore the seven-year period of the 70th week is not left over until the end of the Christian age. And thus the seven-year tribulation concept is proven erroneous.

The historic position of Protestantism for 300 years since the Reformation has been that the 70th week immediately followed the 69 weeks and was fulfilled with the death of Christ “in the midst” (middle) of it. In the 19th century, dispensationalists came along and said, “Not so, there is a parenthesis between the 69 weeks and the 70th week. This “gap” is the period between the first advent and the rapture. Then, they say, “The 70th week, seven years, begins to count. And the ‘he‘ of Daniel 9:27 is not Christ, but antichrist, and the seven years of the 70th week is the ‘seven-year tribulation’ during which Chapters 6-19 of Revelation are fulfilled.” The mere fact that this gap is purely an assumption, not founded on Scripture, seems to matter little to the seven-year dispensationalists.

Seeing as there appears to be some confusion as to the true interpretation of this prophecy it would seem but prudent to take another look, however due to the complexity and importance of this prophecy we feel a more detail explanation is in order therefore we will break this down so as to make it more digestible to all. Note that this view is from the Bible Students perspective; it is somewhat similar to that held by the JW’s.

Dan 9:23-27

Understand the matter, and consider the vision. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem, unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks [7 and 60 and 2 = 69 weeks]: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself. And the people of the prince that shall come [the Roman prince, Titus’ army] shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he [Messiah] shall confirm the covenant with many for one week [the seventieth, or last week of the covenant of favor]. And in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for [or because of] the overspreading [prevailing] of abominations, he [Messiah] shall make it desolate, even until the consummation [or completion] and that [which is] determined [in God’s plan] shall be poured upon the desolate” [people, represented by Jerusalem].

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem that kills the prophets, and stones them that are sent unto her! How often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.” Matt 23:37, 38 ASV

As stated many would remove the last week of Daniel’s 70 Weeks’ time prophecy for the First Advent and place it at the Second Advent. This gap between the 69 prophetic weeks and the last week, however, is not warranted. The last week, or 7 literal years, was clearly fulfilled at the time Jesus Christ presented himself as Messiah to the House of Israel.

While many prophecies combine to fix and confirm the date of the second coming of Christ, this one alone marked the date of the First Advent. If its fulfillment is clearly established, it will aid in the calculating and judging of those prophecies relating to the Second Advent. The dates established in this, Daniel’s fulfilled prophecy are needful in the understanding of other prophecies relating to the Second Advent.

Daniel had been shown many visions, as recorded in Chapters 2, 4, 7 and 8 of this prophecy, all of which showed great prosperity and exaltation to heathen or gentile kingdoms; but his special interest was in Israel, and he had not been informed concerning Israel’s future. He knew, however, from Jeremiah’s prophecy (Jer 29:10; 2 Chron 36:20-23), that the desolation of Judea would continue seventy years; and knowing that period to be nearly complete (Dan 9:2), he prayed earnestly for the return of God’s favor to Israel (Verses 17-19), and the foregoing (Dan 9:23-27) was God’s answer to him through an angel.

The marked off (“cut off,” or “determined”) period of Israel’s history here shown is “seventy weeks” from a given starting point, viz., from the going forth of a decree “to restore and to build Jerusalem.” (Mark! NOT the Temple.) During the period great things were to be accomplished: The city would be rebuilt under unfavorable circumstances (See Nehemiah Chapter 4), in troublous times; sin would be finished by a reconciliation being made for iniquity; and righteousness (justification) would be established, not like that accomplished year by year with the blood of bulls and goats, but the true and “everlasting righteousness,” brought about by the sacrifice of Christ. Daniel was also informed that he would introduce the better sacrifice and would thereby cause the typical sacrifices and oblations of the Law to cease.

In this period, Messiah, the long-looked-for Savior of Israel, would come, and seven weeks and threescore and two weeks, or sixty-nine weeks, are stated as the measure of the time to Messiah’s Presence. And AFTER THAT he would be cut off, but not for himself. There would therefore remain, after Messiah’s coming, one week, the last, the seventieth of this promised favor; and in the midst or middle of that week it was foretold that he would cause the typical sacrifices to cease, by making “his soul an offering for sin.” Isa 53:10-12

Continued with our next post.

The Great Pyramid, Part 17

The Great Pyramid, Part 17


“Speaking of the Great Pyramid, C. T. Russell says: ‘But while the outward testimony of this great structure is thus complete and in accord with God’s written revelation, its inner construction is even more wonderful. While its outward form illustrates the completed results of God’s Plan of Redemption, the inner construction marks and illustrates every prominent feature of that plan as it has developed from age to age, down to its glorious and complete consummation.”

However in order to obtain an intelligent and appreciative understanding of the Great Pyramid specifically in regards to the symbolical aspects of this structure, one must first acquaint themselves with the interior system of this structure. The names given to the various passages and chambers are those commonly accepted by Pyramid students.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 57)

In our examination here of the interior we will be simply following along with Brother John and Morton Edgar in their examination of the structure adding any thoughts or comments that we might have as we go along (in italics as always). Now it is apparent that since their original visit further excavations have taken place (and continue to do so), and so with this in mind we may from time to time note some differences between the older photos and the newer ones, however this does not diminish the value of some of the older photos, in fact when the true symbolical significance of some of the various features of this structure are properly understood some of the older photos will prove of far more value than the newer ones.

As was mentioned in one of our earlier posts there is but one original Entrance to the interior of the Great Pyramid High up on the face of the northern flank (about 50 feet vertically above the ground), and nearly twenty-four feet to the east of the middle line of the structure, there is a small doorway which leads into the Descending Passage, which, like all the other primary passages, runs from north to south.

So low is the roof of this passage (barely four feet), that we are required to stoop considerably, and the difficulty of progression increases by its slipperiness and steep downward inclination (as can be seen by the above photo). For the first seventy-eight feet or so the center of the floor is hewn and worn into a series of irregular trenches. These tended to increase the difficulty of our descent, though here and there the extra vertical height which they afford enabled us to walk upright.” (Page 57)

In this old photo you can see the “trench” spoken of above, cut into the floor of the descending passage; this trench was obviously not a part of the original design but was no doubt something which was added at a later date most likely to better facilitate movement up and down the passage. It appears from the account given by the Edgar’s that this trench only extended to just shy of the point where the descending passage begins its decent through the solid rock core beneath the Pyramid.

Continuing on now a few feet further down the passage we noticed above us a depression in the roof, into which a rectangular, dark granite block is fitted. This is the lower butt-end of a series of three large granite stones, named collectively the Granite Plug, because they completely stop up the lower end of the First Ascending Passage. (Page 57)

“The small space between the lower end of the Granite Plug, and the roof-line of the Descending Passage, was originally closed by a smooth limestone block similar to the other stones which form the roof of the Descending Passage, and in line with them (Shown above). So effectually did this limestone block conceal the entrance of the First Ascending Passage, that none of the classic nations knew of the existence of the upper passages and chambers. Later, the little of what was once known by ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, was lost, for even the site of entrance to the Great Pyramid became forgotten.” (Page 63)

“At this particular juncture in the passage the floor beneath us is found to be composed of such hard limestone, that the traffic and vandalism of centuries have made little impression on it. For a length of about ten feet the surface is so smooth that to walk on it is impossible, unless one is wearing rubber soled shoes, or bare feet, and even then the support afforded by the side walls may not be disdained.” (Pages 57-59)

The photo above is a picture of the Descending Passage as it appears today looking north back up the passage toward the original entrance standing just beneath the granite plug, you will note that the trench has been completely covered by walking planks most likely designed to aid the custodians of the structure in maintaining this part of the pyramid. This original entrance is closed to the public with entrance now being facilitated through the entrance cut by Al Mamoun’s men.

Returning once again now to the Edgar’s account from just below the granite plug, ‘Visitors who are wearing boots and have no one to assist them, have to sit on their heels at this point, and slide down until their further descent is arrested by a fragmentary block of limestone, this block rests against a large fractured granite stone, which is tightly wedged across the floor of the passage (possibly a little hard to make out at first in this black and white photo, but it’s there, you just have to look very closely, it’s located just behind the limestone block which is resting against the east side of the passage). Along the top of the granite stone, between it and the roof, a small iron grill-door has been adjusted. (Neither the two stones in the present position, nor the grill-door form any part of the original design.) So confined is the space between the upper surface of the block of granite and the roof, that, whenever we required to descend to the lower parts of the Pyramid in pursuance of our work, we were compelled first to sit on the granite stone with our feet thrust through the narrow opening, and then, taking firm hold of the thin iron lintel of the grill-door, lower ourselves cautiously through the opening until our feet rested on the inclined floor of the passage below. This grill-door is usually locked, but the Director-General of Antiquities in Egypt kindly permitted it to remain unlocked all the time of our visit.” (Page 59)

The original gate, limestone fragment and granite stone spoken of by the Edgar’s above has long since been removed and replaced with a much newer gate one which better affords the visitor much easier access to the lower part of the passage.

“Immediately above or north of the granite stone on which the grill-door was originally fixed, there is an irregular opening in the west wall of the Descending Passage (red arrow). When we stepped through this opening, we found ourselves in a large cavernous space. This cavity with its opening from the Descending Passage was hollowed out in the masonry eleven hundred years ago by Caliph Al Mamoun…  In the photo below we are standing in this cavity roughly about where Brother John Edgar is seen in the second photo below, from this vantage point we are looking back down towards the Descending Passage with its newly installed grill door leading to the Subterranean Chamber.

After entering the cavity, we observed the west end of the upper two-thirds of the Granite Plug, which had previously been exposed by Al Mamoun’s excavation. (Pages 59-63)


Retuning back down to the Descending Passage with the gate open we are looking south down the descending passage, walking planks along with hand rails and Florissant lighting now aid the visitor in his decent into the abyss. Even now with the additional lighting the passage still looks a bit ominous one could only imagine how it must have appeared to the Edgar’s using only candles, especially after having to climb through that little iron grill door previously installed.

“Only one-fourth of the total length of the Descending Passage runs through the Pyramid proper. The remaining three-fourths, progressing southwards at the same steep angle (approximately 26 degrees), is forced through the solid rock upon which the Pyramid stands, and ends in the Small Horizontal Passage which continues in the same southerly direction, and leads first to a small ante-chamber or Recess, and then to a large Subterranean Chamber carved out in the heart of the rock about one hundred feet vertically below the center of the base-line of the Pyramid.” (Page 91) We will take a closer look at this Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it is sometimes referred in our next post.


In the first photo below Brother John Edgar is seen sitting right at the juncture of the Descending Passage where it meets up with the Small Horizontal Passage which leads to the Subterranean Chamber. Our second photo is taken from the Subterranean Chamber looking back north down through the Small Horizontal Passage toward the juncture where it meets up with the Descending Passage you can just make out the walking planks where they end. Also of note just beyond the Florissant light to the left is the small “Recess” spoken of earlier.


“In the Descending Passage, about 24 feet up from the lower end (where John is seen sitting), there is an opening in the west wall. It is the entrance into a small passage, six feet in length, which leads to the lower end of an almost vertical shaft, only a little over two feet square in bore, named the Well.” (Page 59)

In our first picture below we are kneeling in the Descending Passage looking (west) down the little six foot passage toward the lower end of the Well-Shaft. The almost vertical incline of the shaft is self evident from Judah’s (their Arab attendants) ascent up the passage. The rod seen here in Judah’s hand is being held parallel with the incline of the lower reach of the well-shaft.

The second photo below one which we had seen previously is a view of the little six foot passage looking (east) or back toward the Descending Passage where Brother John Edgar is found descending the passage on his way to the juncture of the Descending Passage and the Small Horizontal Passage. It will also be noted here that this little six foot passage, “does not completely lie at right angles to the Descending Passage, but inclines slightly to the north with its floor gradually dipping down toward the western extremity by about two feet in the whole length of the passage. The roof and south wall of this little passage are very uneven, but the north wall is fairly straight and level.

How much the roughness and brokenness of the mouth of the lower end of the well may be due to dilapidation or mishandling since the time it was cut by the ancient workmen, it is difficult to say. If the opening was originally covered by a stone (a concealing block) as Professor Petrie believes, and as is quite probable, those who removed it may have knocked away the edges of the mouth in their endeavors to dislodge it from its setting.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 192-195)

The Symbolic significance of the Descending Passage

“Because of its downward slope and very small bore, the whole Descending Passage suggests the thought of the world of mankind bowed under the curse, hastening towards destruction. Recall how “The Broad way that leads to destruction” is typified in the “Basement Sheet” located just beneath the Descending Passage.

Since the transverse height of the Descending Passage is scarcely four feet in height, the man who travels down this passage is required to stoop very low. The steep downward inclination of the roof compels him to bow his head and shoulders even lower than if the passage were horizontal. So cramped is the posture, that before he has gone far his back, head, and legs begin to ache, and he soon longs for an opportunity to stand upright once again; but there is no relief, and as he continues his downward course he finds it more and more laborious and painful. At first, the light streaming in from the Entrance aids him in choosing his footing, but the further he proceeds the gloomier becomes the way, until at length he requires to grope along in almost complete darkness, unless he possesses a lamp to light his way. (Prov 4:19; 2 Sam 22:29; Psa 119:105) When he has reached the lower extremity of the passage, should he look back, he will see the light at the Entrance now reduced to a mere point owing to the distance, and serving him only as a reminder of the freedom and light once enjoyed. But after he passes the bend of the passage at the small horizontal portion, even this small link with the past is lost. As the roof here is even lower than that of the Descending Passage, at this part of the journey he will be forced to his knees, and if he should continue without the aid of a lamp, he will be require to creep on in complete darkness, until at last he stumbles into the ‘Pit.” A few feet before the end of the way, the passage is a little roomier (at the “Recess), and this may cause him to imagine that he will obtain more freedom if he perseveres: but the hope is a delusive one, for the passage becomes as narrow as it was before, and remains so until the Pit is reached.

Is not this a graphic illustration of the condition of the world, bowed under the yoke of the Adamic condemnation to death, groping and stumbling in the darkness, and finding no permanent peace and happiness in spite of all its plans and speculations. This downward course had its first beginning at the fall when God, in passing the sentence of death upon Adam, the head of the race of mankind, said to him: ‘Cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shall thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shall eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread, until thou return unto the ground; for out of it were thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shall thou return“-Rom 8:22; Gen 3:17-19.

Though, as we have seen, God has been silently choosing a special people to himself and has been carrying out his beneficent purposes in them, ‘the whole world [still] lies in the wicked one“-1 John 5:19, R.V. The only hindrances placed by God in the way of the downward course of mankind have been (1) the indirect restraining influence of the truth manifested in the lives and sayings of his people (Matt 5:13, 14), and (2) the direct prevention of anything which would interfere in any way with the outworking of the Divine plane of salvation. Had men been given complete liberty, their evil desires and lack of judgment would long ago have precipitated matters, but God restrained them, as we read in Psa 76:10-“Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shall thou restrain.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 91-93)

In our next post we shall take a closer look at the Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it sometimes is called.


The Great Pyramid, Part 16

The Great Pyramid, Part 16

“Of all the pyramids the one which preeminently attracts the attention of tourists as well as of pyramid students, is that which by common consent has been named the Great Pyramid, or simply The Pyramid. This is partly because of its superior size, but chiefly because of the extraordinary skill of workmanship which it displays…nevertheless the majority of visitors simply walk right past the Great Pyramid, to admire the Sphinx instead. As usual, the Idol receives the most attention and worship. True they are no doubt impressed by the immense size of the Great Pyramid; but everything there bespeaks of toil and labor, and thus comparatively few ascend to its summit; fewer still venture within, and even of the few who do most of these are totally oblivious to the true significance of its interior passages.” (Great Pyramid Passages Pages 17 and 140)

It should be noted that the foregoing remarks were made by the author back in 1909, and that even with the increase of knowledge and understanding which we have today in regards to the Great Pyramid and its true significance the majority of visitors to the pyramids are still oblivious of its true value, still more fascinated with the Sphinx and the second pyramid as is evidenced in the many photos taken of the pyramids many of which erroneously make it appear as though the second pyramid is the largest of the three and of prime importance, this fact can easily be seen for yourself just type in “the great pyramid” in your search engine and then click on images, you will see for yourself what the true focal point of interest is.

If only they knew what they were missing, that one day not too far into the future the pyramid which they overlooked, which they deemed unseemly (rough and unattractive), but for its immense size nothing of particular interest that this particular pyramid would be the one restored to its previous glory memorialized for all eternity as a monument to the Lord and to the Divine Plan of the Ages. The Sphinx as well as the other pyramids mere idols, man-made attempts to glorify men rather than God brought to dust and long forgotten.

“However true it may be that some, if not all, of the smaller pyramids were originally built to be used as tombs it is certain that this was never the case with regards to the Great Pyramid, that while constructed by men, even as the Bible nevertheless was of Divine origin or intention, erected for the purpose of teaching the important truth of God’s infinite wisdom and foreknowledge. The first to propose and prove this view was John Taylor of London in a book published in 1859 A.D. and entitled The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built? And Who Built It? What convinced him were mainly the many important scientific truths which he found to be embodied in this wonderful structure…

Before his death, John Taylor requested Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, at that time Astronomer Royal for Scotland, to go to Egypt and make a thorough scientific examination of the Great Pyramid. This Professor Smyth did during the winter 1864-5. In his Life and Work at the Great Pyramid, He has left on record minute measurements of every important part of the structure, except, on the exterior, the few remaining casing-stones, and, in the interior, the Subterranean Chamber or Pit, and the lower three-fourths of the Descending Passage. Large accumulations of rubbish prevented him (at the time) from exploring these portions. With the exception of minute fractional differences in certain parts, these measurements have since been confirmed by other scientific investigators, prominent among who is Professor Flinders Petrie, in spite of the fact that he ridicules the various scientific and religious theories warmly advocated by Professor Smyth.

Consequent upon the work of Professor Smyth, many able minds have been awakened to search into the various problems presented by the Great Pyramid. Some of these investigators have claimed not only that it embodies great scientific truths, but also that it sets forth symbolically and by measurement the Divine plan of salvation-that, in fact, it is Messianic. Among the supporters of this view Professor Smyth himself; but the chief one has been C. T. Russell, Pastor of Brooklyn Tabernacle, N.Y. Previous to his study of the Great Pyramid, he had discovered many wonderful truths in the Scriptures regarding the plan of salvation, truths which reveal the harmonious co-operation of Divine wisdom, justice, love and power, and therefore exalted his conception of the character and purposes of the creator and sustainer of the universe. With his mind clarified by the knowledge thus gained, he was enabled to discover symbolic and prophetic features in the Great Pyramid, which had necessarily been hidden from previous Pyramid students.” (Great Pyramid Passages Pages 12-17)

The Symbolism of the Great Pyramid

Besides the many scientific truths now known to be embodied in the Great Pyramid, many of which are well known, still other truths are taught by this “Miracle in Stone, which many are completely unaware .” Symbolically, each passage and chamber in the monument represents some essential feature in the Lord’s Plan of the Ages:—

1) The Descending Passage: The course of this “Present Evil World” depicts the road that leads to destruction.

2) The Subterranean Chamber: Representative of the Destruction which terminates not only the eternal destruction or demise of the unsaved but likewise the final destruction of the present evil systems. This chamber is likewise known as the “Bottomless Pit.”

3) The First Ascending Passage: Representative of the Law Age, during which time the nation of Israel endeavored to gain life by the works of the Law.

4) The Granite Plug: blocking the way up the First Ascending Passage: The perfect Divine Law of God, rendering the “way which was ordained to life” impassable.

5) The Grand Gallery: Representative of the Gospel Age, during which time the High-Calling to membership in the Body of Christ is offered to the faithful.

6) The Ante-Chamber: The “Holy” of the Tabernacle; the “School of Christ“; the spirit-begotten condition of those who have presented their bodies a living sacrifice to God.

7) The King’s Chamber: The “Most Holy” of the Tabernacle; the “Sanctuary“; the Divine spirit nature of Christ and His body-members; the Kingdom of Christ.

8) The Queen’s Chamber: The condition of Human Perfection, as possessed by Adam prior to his fall; and by the “Man Christ Jesus” at His first advent when He came to lay down His life as the Savior of Mankind, and Redeemer of Israel; and which will again be the possession of the human race when Restitution is complete (Acts 3:19-21).

9) The Horizontal Passage: leading to the Queen’s Chamber: The complete period of the world’s history from the time of Adam to the end of Christ’s Millennial reign, when all will have attained perfect human life, the condition symbolized by the Queen’s Chamber to which the passage leads. Also representative of the New (Law) Covenant, made operative when Israel’s “blindness in part” is turned away from them.

10) The Well-shaft: Representative of the Ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ, thus providing a “way of escape” from the death-doomed conditions of the world represented by the Descending Passage. As the central theme of the Bible is the sacrificial death, and the resurrection, of Jesus Christ, so the Well-shaft in the Great Pyramid is the key which opens the true teaching of the building’s entire passage and chamber system. As a Bible without the doctrine of the Ransom-sacrifice of Christ would be useless to a world in need of a Savior (Rom 4:25; 2Co 5:14, 15), so the Pyramid without its Well-shaft would be meaningless. The Well-shaft, therefore, is an important part of the original design of the building; as, indeed, is proved by the arrangement of the Grand Gallery’s masonry in the region of the shaft’s upper mouth.

11) The Plane of Human Perfection: Represented in the Great Pyramid by the produced level of the floor-line of the Queen’s Chamber.

Biblical Times and Seasons: The absolute agreement of the inch-lengths of the various passage-ways in the Great Pyramid with the years of the chronological periods, both sacred and secular, is one of the Pyramid’s most remarkable features. Note how the Chart of the Ages and the interior passages of the Great Pyramid are in agreement.

In our next post we will begin with a closer look and examination of the various passages and chambers of the Pyramid.



The Great Pyramid, Part 15

The Great Pyramid, Part 15

Now as we had alluded to earlier in a previous post once the “sloping” masonry was removed revealing the great angular stones another unique item was likewise discovered. Located in the cavity just below the bottom two angular stones was found some sort of emblem cut into the stone. What precisely this particular item represented however is not so clear.

Some have suggested that it resembles an “eye” although personally I don’t see any such resemblance, perhaps some are a little too eager to find some connection between the Great Pyramid and the Masonic symbol of “the all seeing eye” found on the back of the one dollar bill.

Still others are of the opinion that it resembles the teeth of a “key”, that in some form or fashion it is central to unlocking the mystery of the Pyramid. That this is a distinctive possibility we readily admit, but not to any suggestion of its being a literal key mind you, rather we see it as a symbol of something which serves as a key. A closer look reveals that this particular symbol or emblem bears a remarkable resemblance to the “Subterranean Chamber” located beneath the Pyramid; this curious chamber is only roughly hewn out of the bedrock and looks almost as though it were a quarry.

The second photo below is merely a plaster model of the Subterranean Chamber (as viewed from the rear of the chamber, you have to picture it spun around), nevertheless I believe it serves best in showing a remarkable resemblance between the emblem and the Chamber.

Is this what is represented by the emblem the “Pit”? We can’t say for sure however a little further investigation into what we have thus far might prove helpful. Since the emblem is located directly beneath the two sets of angular stones we believe it correct to assume that all three are related to each other somehow.

So what about these angular stones; what do they represent? Why was one set of angular stones placed above another?

“In his 5th Edition of Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, page 296, Professor C. Piazzi Smyth draws attention to the four “angular” stones which lie conspicuously above the Entrance of the Pyramid. He demonstrates that their purpose was evidently to monumentalize the (pi) angle of the sides of the building, viz.: 51º 51’ 14”.3, but he does not suggest a reason why this dominant angle of the Pyramid should be particularly indicated at the Entrance. We suggest the following as being a possible symbolical reason.

The great “angular” stones preserve by their inclination toward each other, the scientific (pi) angle of the Pyramid’s four sides. They thus seem to say, in figurative language that at one time a perfect Pyramid stood here at the Entrance of the Descending Passage. The apex of the inside angle formed between the two sets of inclined stones (shown in the diagram below) is in line, nearly with the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor (the 25th course of masonry), this perfect pyramid would represent Adam, who was created on the Plane of Human Perfection.”

“One of man’s oldest mathematical quests has been to accurately determine the relationship between the circumference of a circle and its diameter. Mathematicians denote this ratio by the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, À (’pi’). This value, which we know today as 3.141592 +, was first accurately determined by Rudolph Van Ceulin in the sixteenth century. It is a ratio fundamental to the study of physical things, as it gives a mathematical link between straight and circular geometric figures. A proper ascertainment of this ratio is vital to mathematicians, astro-physicists, architects, and many others.

The pi ratio is one of the first mathematical features discovered in the Great Pyramid. In the 1850s John Taylor discovered that the original vertical height of the Great Pyramid was to its base perimeter as the radius of a circle is to its circumference. John Taylor noted that this pi proportion feature could only work with the unique Great Pyramid angle of 51° 51’. Thus no other pyramid contains this relationship.

According to both Smyth’s and Petrie’s measurements, the Great Pyramid demonstrates the pi proportion accurately to four decimal points. The significance of this demonstration is doubly impressive when one realizes that pi had not been worked out to this accuracy until the sixth century, more than 2700 years after the Great Pyramid’s completion.” (The Great Pyramid: Ancient Wonder, Modern Mystery)

In the Scriptures, our Lord is likened to the head cornerstone of a pyramid of which the great stone Pyramid in Egypt is a symbol (Psa 118:22; Matt 21:42). It is therefore quite in accord with the Scriptures, and with the Pyramid’s corroborative symbolisms, to liken Adam who in certain aspects was a type of Christ to a small perfect pyramid standing on the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor, immediately above the Entrance to the passage down which he afterwards is represented as falling in consequence of his disobedience. Now, the direct vertical distance between the north edge of the “basement sheet” of the Descending Passage, and the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor, is exactly a 25th of the complete vertical height of the whole Pyramid. This vertical distance is 232.5204+ Pyramid inches (shown below), and is an exact 25th part of the full Socket-to-apex vertical height of the building, 5813.0101+ Pyramid inches.

In his fallen state Adam is represented at the end of his 1000-year “day” of condemnation as standing at the north edge of the “basement sheet.” Thus, the little pyramid now reckoned as having fallen like Adam from the Queen’s Chamber floor-level down to the “basement sheet”, its apex just touching the line above which symbolizes the Plane of Human Perfection, represents Adam at the full end of his 1000-year “day” losing all hold upon his at one time perfect human state, and falling into the Descending Passage condition of death on his way to the “Pit”.

The fact that Adam is represented by a pyramid which is exactly a 25th the size of the Great Pyramid may explain the reason for the Queen’s Chamber being situated at the 25th masonry course of the building. This seems to be the Pyramid’s method of corroborating the Scriptural declaration that Adam was made in the image of his Creator, and that he was the earthly type of the Spiritual Adam (Rom 5:14), Christ, who is symbolized by the whole Great Pyramid.

As the pyramid representing Adam is a 25th of the size of the whole Pyramid, it follows that the dimensions of the latter in cubits is exactly reproduced in inches in the little model; for a cubit equals 25 inches. The number of inches in the base-length of the little pyramid is 365.242, i.e., the same as the number of days in the solar year. The foregoing symbolical representation of Adam is likewise supported by a number of other time-measurements, which we shall see later in our study.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 145-147)

In our next post we will begin our look at the interior passages of the Great Pyramid.

The Great Pyramid, Part 14

The Great Pyramid, Part 14

The following two illustrations with their various measurements are merely approximations and should not be taken as exact representations; nevertheless I believe they provide us with a general idea as to the overall size and dimension of the entrance. From what I’ve been able to gather thus far through my studies is there appears to be some variations to these measurements from one investigator to the next so determining the exact figures is rather difficult, however since this aspect of the Pyramid is not necessarily pertinent to our study we should not be to overly concern.

A particular view often depicted in many studies on the Pyramid is that of the masonry work taken from an easterly vantage point looking toward the west or right side of the entrance. As you can see from the following two illustrations there appears to be some discrepancy between just how the various courses of masonry were constructed, obviously our investigators each saw things a little different in their own investigations. Nevertheless in both of these illustrations the shaded areas denote all the stones which remain following the removal of the “sloping stones” and abundant masonry, and what we have left is the exposed masonry as viewed to the right of the entrance.


It should likewise be understood that the upright stones (B), which appear to be overriding the ceiling of the entrance passage are in fact located to the far right of the entrance tunnel, the original ceiling stones long since having been removed. Immediately above these stones located to the right of the entrance were place another particular course of stones (A) apparently with the intention of aiding in bringing the entrance opening which is on a 26 degree angle leading down to the subterranean chamber back in line horizontally with the remainder of the pyramid. Even so the remainder of the courses above and around these stones as depicted in the pictures above still remain a bit confusing to us especially when we take into consideration that the “slanted masonry” (C), which was set at approximately a 50º angle and located to the left and the right of the entrance as seen in the photos below (the purpose of which is still not exactly known), appears to be missing although it is possible that from their particular vantage point what was illustrated above is exactly what they saw, unfortunately all we have to go by is what photos are available to us. Nevertheless it appears the architect went to a lot of effort in designing this elaborate entrance.

Upon a closer examination of Fig. 1 we can see that there is a distinctive deviation in the angle of the masonry, course by course as it is slowly adjusted from the 26 degree angle of the descending passage to that of the horizontal plane of the remainder of the Pyramid.

Point A represents the horizontal plane of the Pyramid; in contrast Point F denotes the 26 degree angle of the entrance masonry (take special note of the hand rails these too are set on this particular angle). Now note how from Point F back to Point B how the stone courses gradually are brought back onto a horizontal plane. By the time the stone courses reach the 27th course (Point B) the entrance masonry is relatively back on line with the remainder of the Pyramid, this can be seen quite readily in the next two illustrations.

The illustration above (keeping in mind that this is merely an approximation) shows a little more detail into how the entrance was constructed including the “slanted masonry” located to the right of the entrance, the actual design and placement of the various stones involved in this masonry differing somewhat from that of the design shown at the top of this page, keep in mind that particular illustration was meant only to be used as a basic guide to aid us in determining the overall measurements of the entrance. Here we can see that the entrance passage is much more elaborate than what we might have previously imagined more than merely a simple opening in the side of the Pyramid.

This is a cut out of the Pyramid showing the entrance passage with the casing stones in place (Note: in this particular illustration we have not illustrated the “slanted masonry). Regardless you may have noted from both this illustration and from the previous one that we have simply illustrated the stones located immediately below the “slanted masonry” as consisting merely of a rectangular mass of stones, the reason for this is because there is no indication (nor way of proving), that these stones continued on down alongside the stones immediately found over the descending passage, however with regards to the ceiling stones themselves they are not only visible from within the descending passage, but I believe are likewise revealed at the opening where Al Mamoun’s forced passage opens up near the granite plugs here their width is once again confirmed. Another particular set of stones whose width likewise remains the same beginning from the entrance all the way down to this point is the floor-stones.

These floor-stones (2 ½ feet in height, three across) can be traced at their exposed outer ends for a combined width of thirty three feet, from east to west. Because of this great width Professor C. Piazzi Smyth named the floor of the Descending Passage the “Basement Sheet”. Down the center of this long broad sheet of stone, and at a distance of three and half feet apart, the walls of the passage are laid; and placed on top of these are immense roof-stones, eight and a half feet in thickness, and over twelve feet in width from east to west.

Thus, while the Descending Passage is very narrow, the sheet of masonry which forms its floor is so broad, that by this means the passage sustains its symbolical significance, namely, its representation of thebroad way that leads to destruction.” Professor Smyth was of the opinion that the present outside end of this Basement-sheet is also its original north-beginning. Nevertheless, the ancient doorway must have been nearly ten and a half feet further out, in line with the now missing casing of the building (See the second black and white illustration above). In the symbolic and scientific features of the Pyramid, both the ancient and present north commencements of the Descending Passage floor are recognized thus proving that Professor Smyth was correct in his opinion as to the importance of the Basement sheet.

Without doubt the Entrance Passage was constructed to endure; and the workmanship displayed in it has been the object of the great admiration of all investigators, both ancient and modern. Professor Greaves on beholding the beautiful masonry of this passage in 1638 thirty eight centuries after the completion of the building exclaimed with almost Tennysonian feeling: “The structure of it hath been the labor of an exquisite hand, and appears by the smoothness and evenness of the work, and by the close knitting of the joints”; and Professor C. Piazzi Smyth writes: “No one with an ability to appreciate good work can look unmoved with admiration at the extraordinarily truthful straight lines, and close fitting of the wall joints near and about the present Entrance”; while Professor Flinders Petrie adds his testimony in the following eulogism: “The pavement, lower casing, and Entrance Passage are exquisitely wrought; in fact the means employed for placing and cementing the blocks of soft limestone weighing a dozen or twenty tons each, with such hair-like joints are almost inconceivable at present; and the accuracy of the leveling is marvelous.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 215-216)

One more item before we conclude here, there has been some debate as to whether or not there were actually 144,000 casing stones encompassing the Pyramid with some computer calculations indicating only 40,000 to 50,000 total stones, roughly 10 to 15 thousand per side, however we fell to see how this computer estimate could be established unless it were determined that all the stones were roughly the exact same size as the limestone blocks located immediately behind them on each course, however as was illustrated in our last drawing above and confirmed by the remaining casing stones found at the base of the Pyramid, we believe these stones not only varied in height, width, and length, but likewise that additional white casing stones were placed immediately behind these, and not in any exact manner. Sometimes a long “header block” was placed abutting two outer stones (as depicted in the photo below), sometimes it might be the other way around or possibly just one stone found directly behind another. Depending on their size certain casing stones might even have gone two to three deep into a course on some occasions . Computer calculations could not possibly account for the number of these hidden stones.

As for ourselves spiritually speaking we can see how these white casing stones representative of the body of Christ, robed in white raiment could vary in size and shape even as star differs from star, and as for the hidden stones is it not true that some members of the body are more visible to us than are others, perhaps further thoughts to ponder.

We will continue with our examination of the pyramid in our next post.