The Time before Creation
In our previous post we were considering the tremendous heat being generated by our new planet and how many of the base elements composing the early earth converted to vapor or gas would expand and rise into the newly forming atmosphere.
“A molten earth spinning on fixed axis would tend to bulge outward at the fastest moving portion, the equator, and to flatten the ends of the axis, the poles. The diameter of the equator is 7926.677 miles where the axis is 7899.988 miles, a difference of 26.689 miles. After the earth had solidified its crust, this spinning motion would not have had so much effect, so we are assured that the points of the axis were fixed while the earth was still molten, and since they are still in the center of the flattened areas, we are also assured that they have never been changed.
When the surface of the earth was molten, and that surface now generally lies many miles below the present surface, neither water nor any of the substances later added to earth’s crust were on that surface, and therefore must have been above the earth. The entire mass above the surface must have turned with the earth and at the same rate of rotation, just as the atmosphere of today. There are some scientists that claim that at that period the earth revolved at a much faster rate than at present, probably completing a revolution every 4 to 5 hours.
Most geologists are agreed that much of the material of the crust of the earth must have been in suspension in the atmosphere at the time of this igneous period. Some recent writers have ignored this logical conclusion and have all of earth’s materials including water out of the atmosphere at the beginning of this period. They explain that since the surface of the earth was so hot the water could not possibly have been there, it much have been inside the earth, for it certainly was somewhere (meteorites, comets and etc.?). But we will accept the more general view since it agrees with natural law. It is true that the water could not have remained on the surface, since had it fallen there it would have immediately been flung back into space as vapor, and taken with it any material soluble in water, it might have assimilated.
In canvassing the various estimates and appraisals of the depth of the vaporous canopy we find that a depth approximately 200,000 miles to be a general conception. Our own calculations based on present deposits and their respective gas expansions (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Gas+expansion) lead us to believe that it was somewhat under this figure. For our calculations let us take only half that amount. This would give us a diameter of twice 100,000 miles, plus the diameter of the earth, a total of 208,000 miles, or a circumference of 653,553.
At the equator then this circumference was traveling at a speed in excess of 27,000 miles per hour. But we have already noted that any mass traveling at 17,000 miles per hour would be free from gravity and over that speed would be thrown away from the earth moving outward until the centrifugal force and gravity were equal. (A point in space at which a particle experiences no net gravitational force. In theory, a unique neutral point would exist between any two static bodies. In practice, when two objects, such as Earth and the Moon are orbiting each other, there are five points, known as Lagrangian points, at which gravitational and centrifugal forces are exactly in balance.)
But it will be noted that this figure does not take into consideration one factor, namely that attraction lessens by the square of the distance, So that moving out from the earth’s surface the pull of gravity would lessen the farther out in space that matter would move. The farther away from earth’s surface any matter moved the greater would be the velocity of rotation, the greater the centrifugal force, and the less the pull of gravity.”
“The effect then upon a mass of vapors around a revolving earth would be to throw the outer vapors into rings above the equator and since the equatorial portion was moving out in space the polar portion would flow toward the unoccupied space to be in its turn thrown outward into the revolving belt or rings. This would be true of all the mass down to the point where gravity was equal to centrifugal force. Since centrifugal force lessens as we approach the poles such of the vapors as remained in canopy formation would approach the earth closer in Polar Regions, resulting in marked oblation that is a polar flattening of what otherwise would be a globular body. (This is somewhat noticeable in the picture below of the top of Saturn).”
The illustration below is what the earth may have resembled in this early period as it began to cool and liquid water began to collect upon its surface, of course this would not have been visible to the eye as this process would have been taking place beneath the canopy which shrouded the planet.
From the outside it is possible the early earth may have resembled Venus or possibly even Saturn that is had it had the time to fully develop. The atmospheric pressure and heat being generated beneath this canopy would most likely have been similar to that which Venus presently experiences.
How hot is Venus?
“Venus has the distinction of being the hottest planet in the solar system, and the fault lies solely with its atmosphere.”
A warm blanket
Venus is the planet most similar to the Earth in terms of size and mass, but its atmosphere causes huge differences in the temperatures between the two planets. The distance to Venus from the sun plays only a small role in the cause of its elevated heat wave.
The atmosphere of Venus is made up almost completely of carbon dioxide, with traces of nitrogen (as well as clouds of sulfuric acid). Much of the hydrogen in the atmosphere evaporated early in the formation of Venus, leaving a thick atmosphere across the planet. At the surface, the atmosphere presses down as hard as water 3,000 feet beneath Earth’s ocean.
The average temperature on Venus is 864 degrees Fahrenheit (462 degrees Celsius). Temperature changes slightly traveling through the atmosphere, growing cooler farther away from the surface. Lead would melt on the surface of the planet, where the temperature is around 872 F (467 C).
Temperatures are cooler in the upper atmosphere, ranging from (minus 43 C) to (minus 173 C).
Balmy all year-round
Temperatures on Venus remain consistent over time. For one thing, the planet takes 243 Earth days to spin just once upon its axis (and it spins backwards, at that; on Venus, the sun rises in the west and sets in the east). The nights on Venus are as warm as the days.
Venus also has a very small tilt of only 3.39 degrees with respect to the sun, compared to 23.4 degrees on Earth. On our planet, it is the tilt that provides us with the change in seasons; the hemisphere slanted closer to the sun feels the heat of spring and summer. The lack of tilt means that even if Venus got rid of its overheated atmosphere, it would still have a fairly consistent temperature year round.
The lack of significant tilt causes only slight temperature variations from the equator to the poles, as well.”
(How hot is Venus? By Nola Taylor Redd http://www.space.com/18526-venus-temperature.html)
“Presently (that is as the earth exist today) as solar winds rush outward from the Sun at nearly a million miles per hour, they are stopped about 44,000 miles (70,800 kilometers) from the Earth when they collide with the giant magnetic envelope which surrounds the planet called the magnetosphere. Most of the solar wind flows around the magnetosphere, but in certain circumstances it can enter the magnetosphere to create a variety of dynamic space weather effects on Earth.”
“The shape of the Earth’s magnetosphere is the direct result of being blasted by solar wind. The solar wind compresses its sunward side to a distance of only 6 to 10 times the radius of the Earth. A supersonic shock wave is created sunward of Earth called the Bow Shock. Most of the solar wind particles are heated and slowed at the bow shock and detour around the Earth in the Magnetosheath. The solar wind drags out the night-side magnetosphere to possibly 1000 times Earth’s radius; its exact length is not known. This extension of the magnetosphere is known as the Magnetotail. The outer boundary of Earth’s confined geomagnetic field is called the Magnetopause. The Earth’s magnetosphere is a highly dynamic structure that responds dramatically to solar variations.” (Earth’s Magnetosphere, https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/multimedia/magnetosphere.html)
“Venus (depicted below) has no such protective shield, but it is still an immovable rock surrounded by an atmosphere that disrupts and interacts with the solar wind, causing interesting space weather effects.” (“Space weather: explosions on Venus” http://www.astronomy.com/news/2012/03/space-weather—explosions-on-venus).
“Venus is known not to have a magnetic field. The reason for its absence is not clear, but is probably related to the planet’s slow rotation or the lack of convection in the mantle. Venus only has an induced magnetosphere formed by the Sun’s magnetic field carried by the solar wind. This process can be understood as the field lines wrapping around an obstacle—Venus in this case…Due to the lack of the intrinsic magnetic field on Venus, the solar wind penetrates relatively deep into the planetary exosphere and causes substantial atmosphere loss.”
(Atmosphere of Venus, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Venus)
Over all Earth’s atmosphere is about 300 miles (or 480 kilometers) thick, but most of it (75-80%) is found within the first 10 miles in the Troposphere, in contrast Venus atmosphere is only about 42 miles (70 kilometers) thick; however its atmosphere is 90% more dense than the earth’s. Whereas most of the clouds found on Earth are found in the Troposphere on Venus the cloud deck reaches almost to the top of the atmosphere 30-40 miles up.
Some critics of the Canopy Theory have argued that the early earth could not have been surrounded by a large canopy of clouds due to its close proximity to the sun and solar winds; however the fact that Venus is still cover by a canopy of clouds even unto this day proves otherwise.
Nevertheless if our planet had been allowed to continue on in the same path as that of Venus with runaway greenhouse effects heating up its primordial atmosphere life here on earth would never have been possible, but alas a cataclysmic event was about to take place which would change all this.
Continued with next post.