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Month: May 2017

Creation, Part 9

Creation, Part 9

THE SECOND DAY (The Year of the World 39,128 B.C.)

Then God said, “Let there be a firmament [atmosphere] in the midst [between] the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament [the ocean] from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.  And God called the firmament *Heaven. So the evening and the morning were THE SECOND DAY.”

In this era or second epoch-day of 7,000 years, God created the firmament, the atmosphere or “expanse,” suggesting something thin or spread out over the earth, like a blanket or tent. (See Isa 40:22) The wisdom and expertise of a Divine Chemist were needed to bring about the critical combination of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen that were required for higher forms of life that were to follow.

Up until this point, there evidently was no clear separation between the vapors above and waters below. The photo above illustrates what it would be like beneath the canopy as God’s spirit hovered upon the face of the waters prior to the first appearance of light. The transition between those waters in a liquid state and those composed of vapor and gas would be near impossible to distinguish in this thick dark atmosphere. This was the “deep”.

Following the first presence of light in this dark and gloomy world, came the creation of the firmament or expanse which acted as a buffer between those waters in a liquid state, vapors and gas, and those comprised of ice, water and gas which circled the earth above the firmament, this new expanse would be distinguish by the first truly visible horizon line.  

It was probably developed in a perfectly natural way, as are most of God’s wonderful works, though nonetheless of his devising, ordering, creating. The fall of one the various “rings” of water and minerals, which enabled light to penetrate through the dense canopy to the earth during the first epoch-day, reaching the still heated earth and its boiling and steaming surface waters, would produce various gases which, rising, would constitute a cushion, or firmament, or atmosphere, all around the earth, and tend to hold up the remaining waters of the “rings” off from the earth.

Another thought is that:

“All the rings formed by the rising vapors surrounding the earth necessarily contained great quantities of water — as well as carbon and other mineral substances. These revolved with greater rapidity near the equator and gradually spread out like an envelope toward the poles until they enveloped the earth as a canopy. As these rings neared the poles their motion was slowed, and both the weight and the slowing velocity caused them to fall. As each one fell, great pools of water or bodies of water were rained down upon the earth. All the mineral substances taken up in solution were brought down at the poles and were rushed on toward the equator.

There would then, of course, be water upon the earth and waters above the earth. David backs up this conclusion in the Bible when he says: “Deep [above] calls unto deep [below] at the noise of your waterfalls; All Your waves and billows have gone over me.” (Psalm 42:7); “You who laid the foundations of the earth, so that it should not be moved forever, you covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains.” (Psalm 104:5, 6; Proverbs 8:27, 28; Job 38:9-11). By the falling of these aqueous rings or canopies the oceans were formed, and these great bodies of water on the earth were separated from the deep above the earth by the firmament. The firmament was not holding up the water — the great deep above the earth was held there by virtue of the fact that it was rapidly revolving in its orbit.” (Hope of Israel Ministries, Ecclesia of YEHOVAH)

This “day,” so far as Scriptures show, would also belong to the Azoic, or lifeless, period; but geology objects to this, claiming that the rocks appropriate to this time show worm-trails and immense quantities of tiny shellfish, the remains of which are evidenced in the great beds of limestone. They denominate this the Paleozoic age of first life—the Silurian period. This is not at variance with the Biblical account, which merely ignores these lowest forms of life.

Evening and morning, Day Two, ended with the full accomplishment of the divine intention respecting it; the separation of the clouds and vapors, etc., from the surface waters by an atmosphere.

At this point in our study we would like to address some supposed scriptural arguments against the Canopy theory.

The following thoughts were written by a creationist in an article entitled “Explaining the Flood without the Canopy”.

Some Scriptural objections to the canopy theory

The writer states, “I will now show that the canopy is not required by Scripture, and is even probably incorrect, according to Scripture.

Probably incorrect”, right here the writer shows his own uncertainty concerning the issue.

*Dr. Russell Humphreys has suggested a cosmology, based on the stretching of space. In this cosmology, Humphreys has suggested that the firmament, which divides the waters above from the waters below, in Genesis 1:6-8, represents the stretching of the universe. The Hebrew word translated firmament is râqîya (רקיע). This word has a similar root to the concept of “stretching” metal, by hammering it. Some versions translate the word as expanse. Humphreys, therefore, uses this concept to explain the various red shift measurements observed in space. However, a side effect of his theory is that the “waters above” would therefore be beyond the stars, rather than at the edge of the atmosphere. This makes sense for a number of reasons.

Does it really? Ask yourself honestly, what practical purpose would there have been for God to have even mentioned the “waters above” if they were something which supposedly existed far beyond the stars, at the very edge of the universe? What does something far off at the edge of the universe have to do with the preparing of the earth for the arrival of man?

The writer continues,

First, we read in Genesis 1 that the Sun, Moon and stars were made in the firmament (Genesis 1:15). If there were a canopy at the edge of the atmosphere, this would mean that the stars were above the canopy, which is not what Scripture says.

Here the author makes his first mistake, Genesis 1:15 in no way implied that the Sun, Moon, and stars were literally made in the firmament, the expanse or atmosphere of the earth.

Let us read the text again for ourselves,

Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years” (New American Standard Bible).

And from Rotherham’s Emphasized Bible, “And God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years

The only translation I found which states made in was the Douay-Rheims Bible.

And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years

However the statement that something is made in the heavens does not necessarily imply that the object was physically made there, but rather that it was made to appear there. It was made visible there.

Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens” Why are these lights made to appear in the heavens, simple, because the atmosphere is composed of air, and air is invisible, transparent. Thus the lights (the Sun, Moon, and stars) were made to appear in the firmament of heaven (the earth’s atmosphere) when in truth they reside in the heavens (the expanse or firmament) above this, in the starry heavens.

As to the second part of the author’s statement, viz. “If there were a canopy at the edge of the atmosphere, this would mean that the stars were above the canopy, which is not what Scripture says.”

The texts may not specifically state that they were, but common sense does.

As we are admonished, “Come let of reason together” that is let us apply the “spirit of a sound mind” and utilizing our god given ability to reason things out for ourselves, let us not fall prey to the foolish babblings of men.

The author continues,

Second, some have pointed to birds flying in the canopy, as pointing to the canopy being at the edge of the atmosphere.

Who are these “some” with whom you mention, certainly not any true canopy theorist? How could the birds fly in the canopy when the canopy is purposed to have been located above the breathable atmosphere? Birds could only survive in the lowest portion of the atmosphere in the troposphere. The canopy containing the “waters above” is suggested to have resided above the troposphere in the upper levels of the atmosphere.

However, if the canopy were at the edge of the universe, this would not contradict this verse (Genesis 1:20). Moreover, the Hebrew version actually talks about the “face of the firmament.” Some versions, such as the NKJV, refer to this: “…let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” So the birds are not actually in the firmament, but flying across the face of it.

More nonsense, obviously the author lacks the “spirit of a sound mind”, “So the birds are not actually in the firmament, but flying across the face of it.” The same mistake made in respects to Gen 1:15, is being repeated here. The “face of the firmament” encompasses the whole of the firmament as seen or taken in by one looking up from the vantage point of the ground. You look up and you behold the face of the sky.  And what do you see, why you see not only birds flying across the face of the sky, but likewise airplanes.

The author continues,

Third, Psalm 148:4 shows that the “waters above” are still actually in place, because this psalm was written after the Flood. That would also suggest that the “waters above” had nothing to do with the Flood, and lends support to Humphreys’ idea that the “waters above” are beyond the last galaxies, not at the edge of the atmosphere.

Here we believe the reference is not in regards to those waters mentioned in Gen 1:7. No here we believe the thought is that all God’s works render him praise, whether they be animate or inanimate, lofty or lowly, each in its own particular way praises the God of it creation, be it the angles, the Sun, the Moon, the stars or even the majesty and splendor of the eternal abode of the Most High, the heaven of heavens.

The waters above likewise praise him in similar fashion, however as stated we believe these waters refer not to physical waters, literal waters, but rather to the waters which reside above the heavens, (above the firmament or atmosphere of earth), the great ocean of space wherein the heavenly hosts (the Stars, the Planets, Moons, and etc.) dwell or we could say float, i.e. the universe itself, another one of God’s creations, one which is continually found praising him both day and night.

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows his handy-work. Day unto day utters speech and night unto night shows knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.” (Psa 19:1-3)

The ancients themselves once thought that there was an ethereal and lofty ocean in which the worlds floated like ships in a sea. –Thomas Le Blanc.

The term “waters above” as used here in Psa 148:4 we believe is used metaphorically or symbolically as representing the great body of water above, space, the universe itself.

It is apparent that a significant part of the problem with respects to this issue has been the failure to distinguish between the various heavens mentioned in the scriptures.

Throughout the scriptures reference is made to the heaven(s). The scriptures speak of different types of “heavens”, those which are LITERAL, and those which are SYMBOLIC.

There are in fact three types of “Literal heavens” made reference to in the scriptures.

The first of these literal heavens mentioned, is that which the Genesis account designates as the “firmament”, (Strong’s # 7549, Hebrew, “raqiya”, raqia, properly, an expanse, i.e. the firmament or (apparently) visible arch of the sky [supposedly that in which the atmosphere would be contained]: — firmament. Gen 1:6

The Lord himself designates this “firmament” as the heaven(s), “And God called the firmament Heaven” (Strong’s # 8064, Hebrew shamayim, the sky aloft, the visible arch in which the clouds move [i.e. the atmosphere], as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve: air, heaven(s) Gen 1: 8 compare with Verse 20

This word “firmament” also stands in regards to the starry “heavens” of the universe, i.e. the expanse of space, wherein the celestial bodies revolve as was alluded to by the foregoing Strong’s number, this we designate as (The second literal heavens) Compare Gen 1:14-18 and Psa 19:1

The third literal heavens mentioned in the scriptures is in reference to the physical heavens, the dwelling place of the Most High, Jehovah God, the place of his throne or (supreme ruler-ship), the abode of all the holy hosts. (See Revelation Chapters 4 and 5, although this is a symbolic picture the implication is clear that this is in regards to the physical heavens where Gods throne dwells).

I have noted that many critics of the canopy theory seem to be under the impression that those who advocate the canopy theory are inferring that the “firmament” is the canopy, however this is not so, the firmament is that portion of the atmosphere or sky containing breathable oxygen, the Troposphere, it is above this expanse or heavens (in the upper atmosphere) where once the canopy laid. It was the “waters which were above the firmament” which constituted the canopy, NOT the firmament itself.

He made darkness his secret place; his canopy around him was dark waters and [the] thick clouds of the skies.” Psa 18:11

The “firmament” or expanse which the Lord created was situated “in the midst of the waters”, that is it extended in such a fashion so as to divide the waters, those under the firmament would naturally be in reference to the waters which covered the earth, liquid waters, in the beginning all the earth’s surface was covered by these waters, later following the emergence of land these waters consisted simply of the various oceans, seas, rivers and etc., those waters above (the firmament) would most likely constituted a vast blanket [or canopy] of water vapor above the troposphere and possibly above the stratosphere as well, in the high-temperature region now known as the ionosphere, some 50 to 250 miles above the earth’s surface and extending far into space.

These particular waters spoken of could not have been in reference to the clouds of water droplets which now float in the atmosphere (the Troposphere, which has a ceiling height of 4 to 11 miles high depending on latitude), an expanse in which nearly all clouds form and weather conditions manifest themselves, in which birds can both breath and fly (Gen 1:20) The Scriptures clearly state these waters were found “ABOVE this firmament”.

Simply points to ponder.

We shall examine the third “day” or epoch in our next post.

* David Russell Humphreys is an American creationist author and a scientist with a PhD in physics. He has proposed a theory for the origin of the universe which he says resolved the distant starlight problem alleged to exist in young Earth creationism.

The Great Pyramid, Part 22

The Great Pyramid, Part 22

The Importance of Granite Plug and its relationship to the First Ascending Passage

“The Apostle tells us that ‘death reigned from Adam to Moses” (Rom 5:14), a period of over 2,500 years. Then an opportunity to escape death was granted to the people of Israel, the descendants of Jacob. God gave them the Law through Moses, and intimated that those who did the things of the Law would live in them. The people of Israel thought it an easy matter to observe the things of the Law and readily promised to do them, but they very quickly realized how powerless they were to observe this Law of God. For the Law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good (Rom 7:12), while they were sinful, born under condemnation to death. They found that they could not keep that perfect law of God inviolate. Thus the commandment which was ordained to life was found to be unto death (Rom 7:10). None could pass the perfect requirements of the Law and gain life.

The First Ascending Passage represents this opportunity to escape the downward way to death and go on an upward way to life. But just as, in reality, the people of Israel could not ascend to life by their Law, so it is found to be impossible to take advantage of the First Ascending Passage. It is blocked at the lower end by a Granite Plug. As Brother Russell clearly proves, granite in the Great Pyramid represents that which gold in the tabernacle and temple represents, namely, divine, spiritual things.

The Granite Plug blocking the lower end of the First Ascending Passage thus very well symbolizes the divine Law of God blocking the way of life. The apostle declares that ‘the Law is spiritual,” but that we are carnal, sold under sin (Rom 7:14). Thus we find that the Great Pyramid corroborates the declaration of the Scriptures: “There is none righteous, no, not one.” “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God” (Rom 3:10, 23). Both the people of Israel and the Gentiles are alike condemned to death, and none of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him (Psa 49:7). In the Great Pyramid all are represented as hastening down the Descending Passage toward the Pit, symbolical of death.

But God, who is full of mercy and loving kindness, and who had foreseen that no one could escape death by his own efforts-neither the Jew with the Law, nor the Gentile without the law-had already provided a way of escape. We read that Jesus Christ is the “Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world,” and that he was “foreordained before the foundation of the world” (John 1:29; 1 Pet 1:19, 20). God had provided in his great Plan of the Ages that His Son should come and die for all mankind, and that he should rise again and become Lord both of the living and the dead.

Thus we read that: “In due time Christ died for the ungodly” (Rom 5:6), and: “When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son” (Gal 4:4). He was “delivered for our offenses, and was raised again for our justification” (Rom 4:25). This great scriptural truth is symbolized in the stone “Sign” and “Witness” by the Well-Shaft. (“The Great Pyramid, Why Was It Built? Who Built It?Page ix-xi)

Further insight on the Symbolism of the First Ascending Passage

THE First Ascending Passage represents the Law Covenant, or, from another point of view, the Law Dispensation. On examining the floor of the Descending Passage, which represents the downward course of ‘this present evil world,” it will be found that the portion which faces the entrance to the First Ascending Passage is composed of extremely hard limestone (Plate XIV above), whereas above and below this it is softer, and consequently much worn by the traffic of centuries.

The hardness of the floor at this part was intended for the purpose of maintaining exact measurements, but it was also intended to signify the fact that at the time when the Israelite’s were called out of Egypt to be the people of God, their standing with the Lord was firm and sure.

Owing to the extra headroom consequent upon the First Ascending Passage branching upwards from the Descending Passage in the same vertical plane, it is not necessary to stoop at this point; the traveler is here able to stand upright, and so ease his aching back. He will thus be able to appreciate the joy which the Israelites must have experienced when freed from their bondage in Egypt, and he will be enabled to sympathize with them, when, on being given the Law, they cried joyfully: “All that the Lord hath spoken we will do“-Exod. 19:1-8.

But should he now endeavor to climb the First Ascending Passage, he will find that the Granite Plug completely blocks the way. In this ingenious manner, as before explained, the Great Pyramid teaches that the way to life by the Law Covenant was impassable, and that what blocked it was the Divine Law (represented in the granite plug itself), because “by the deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified,” for “in man, that is in his flesh, dwells no good thing“-Rom 3:20; 7:18.

Nevertheless, although the Israelite’s could not keep the perfect Law of God, the Bible informs us that God permitted them to continue their endeavors to do so. The Great Pyramid teaches the same lesson, for in spite of the fact that at its beginning the First Ascending Passage is blocked completely by the Granite Plug, beyond this it is open. By its symbolical features, also, including its length, it represents the condition of Israel under the Law. Through the atonement sacrifices the Lord year by year forgave the Israelite’s their sins, and as a nation they were typically justified, that is, they were typically reckoned as having passed from the plane of condemnation represented in the Great Pyramid by the Descending Passage, to the plane of justification represented by the level of the Queen’s Chamber. That this justification was only typical is clear from the statement of the Apostle that the Law made nothing perfect, but was only a shadow of good things to come, for “it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins” (Heb 10:1, 4). Those individuals, however, who, like their father Abraham, rejoiced to see Christ’s day with the eye of faith, and remained until death true to the Lord in the midst of severe trials, had their faith accounted unto them for righteousness. They had friendship with God, and will be awakened to perfect human life through the instrumentality of the glorified Church (Heb 11:39, 40).

The mode of access by which it is now possible to reach the part beyond the Granite Plug (which is still in position) is the hole forced through the soft limestone to the right (west) of the Plug by Caliph Al Mamoun. The Lord thus delayed the discovery of the upper passages and chambers in order that they might be kept intact until the due time for their thorough examination. Once the traveler enters the First Ascending Passage he finds himself on a higher level that the Descending Passage, though still below the level of the Queen’s Chamber, which represents the plane of human perfection. By this means the Pyramid teaches the same lesson as the Chart of the Ages; for if reference be made to the latter, it will be seen that the imperfect pyramid (circled in blue), which represents the nation of Israel, is lifted measurably above the plane of human depravity (the world under Adamic condemnation, plane “R), but below the plane of human perfection (plane “N). Israel for some time resided on plane “P”, which represented their typical justification under the law.

As it is in the Descending Passage, so in the First Ascending Passage the roof is less than four feet transversely above the floor. Accordingly, the traveler is still obliged to bow his head and shoulders, though not so low as when going down the Descending Passage, because now, in walking upward, he has the advantage of the greater vertical height (4 feet 5 inches). The Pyramid thus teaches that the Jew was less degraded than the Gentile.

The way is dark, steep and slippery, and he readily stumbles and falls, more especially as there is nothing to hold on to when he slips. So slippery is this passage that we found that our measuring rods and other articles, when laid on the floor, glided rapidly to the bottom. Does not this wonderfully represent the condition of the Israelites during the Law Dispensation? Those who were sincere in heart delighted in the Law of God after the inward man, but they saw another law in their members warring against the law of their mind, and bringing them into captivity to the law of sin-Rom 7:22, 23. Bowed under the yoke of the Law, they were weary and heavy laden with the ordinances which were against them, and, as the true Light which lightest every man that cometh into the world had not yet appeared, their lamp, the Word of God, shone as yet but dimly. As a result, they stumbled, and since they were under the Law and not under Grace, they had nothing to sustain them when their feet slipped. No wonder the noble Apostle Paul, when he reflected on his former abject condition under the Law, cried despondently: “O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from this death-doomed body?” But at the time when he uttered these words he had already found the answer, and so he exclaimed triumphantly: “I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The terminal end of this passage (the last 33 ½ inches) represents the years of the earthly life of the “man Christ Jesus,” who nailed the Law to his cross, and thus by his death brought the Law Dispensation to a close. The faithful Israelites, who were looking and longing for the coming of the Messiah, being burdened by the Law, must have been comforted when they heard the gracious words of the Master: “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light“-Matt 11:28-30. Those who accepted this loving invitation found to their joy that from that Pentecostal day, fifty days after the resurrection of Christ, when the Holy Spirit fell upon them, they were no longer under the Law symbolized by the First Ascending Passage, but were members of the high or heavenly calling, symbolized by the Grand Gallery. The Law Dispensation had come to an end, and the Gospel Dispensation had commenced. The Apostle declares: “That no man is justified by the law in the sight of God it is evident: for ‘the just shall live by faith.’ And the law is not of faith: but ‘the man that doeth them shall live in them.’ Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, ‘Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree’ ”; and again, “Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, he took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross“(Gal 3:11-13; Col 2:14).

These “Israelites indeed” were now able to stand fast (upright) in the liberty wherewith Christ had made them free. This, the teaching of the Scriptures, is also the teaching of the Great Pyramid, for the vertical height of the Grand Gallery is seven times the transverse height of the First Ascending Passage, twenty-eight feet as against four feet. There is no need to stoop.

Before passing up the Grand Gallery the traveler must recognize the Well at his feet (the ransom sacrifice). As has already been explained, the Well represents ‘Hades,” thedeath-state,” and the appearance of an explosion at its mouth represents the resurrection of Christ who thus opened up the new and living way to life and immortality. In this manner the Great Pyramid symbolizes that, before the Israelite’s could be accepted as partakers of the heavenly calling, it was necessary for them to recognize the love and righteousness of God in giving his only begotten Son as a sacrifice on their behalf, and to recognize also the loving obedience of the Son in drinking the cup which the Father had given him. It symbolizes further that it was necessary for them to believe that God had by his mighty power raised Jesus from the dead and set him at his own right hand on high.

Comparatively few, however, took advantage of the grand opportunity presented to them. As a Nation they rejected the offer and were, in consequence, cast off; and as a Nation, they passed a few years later (70 A.D.) into Hades, the death-state. The few who repented, however, and were baptized for the remission of sins, were justified through faith and had peace with God, and becoming partakers of the high or heavenly calling, and being privileged to suffer and die with Christ, they were given the “exceeding great and precious promises” whereby they might become partakers of the Divine nature.  (Page 99-103)

When we return we will take a further look at the “well”.

The Great Pyramid, Part 21

The Great Pyramid, Part 21

Before we take a look at the symbolic meaning of the First Ascending Passage we would like to note a few more interesting features with regards to the “girdles”, the “granite plug”, and the “large angular stone”. As the Edgar brothers pointed out save for the first three gridles the rest of the gridles were all set in contact one with another. Likewise although they are all set vertically in line with the pyramid as were the first three they nevertheless are not square across the passage, but as seen in the illustration above (noted in red) are inclined upward diagonally from the east wall to the west. Now in respects to those gridles which we believe encompassed the granite plug it is possible that they may have been the exception, for as noted in the diagram the last gridle line shown at the upper end of the granite plug appears to be nearly straight across the passage once again.

Now the précised number of gridles found at the extreme north end of the passage is not specifically designated, we would assume however judging from the size of the previous gridles, those found immediately to the south of the granite plug that there were at least three or four, the first of which may possibly have been a half or three quarter gridle. The reason we suggest this is because of the “large angular stone”, also referred to as the “concealing stone”. This stone like the majority of the other stones used in walls of the passage was made of the typical yellow Tura limestone, in this way it match the others and did not draw any undue attention to itself. The reason for the half griddle is two-fold, first it adds greater support for the angular stone and second if it were a full size gridle (as noted in the illustration below) there would be another joint line in the roof masonry, one for the angular block and one for the gridle, these two joint lines so close to each other might signify a “tell” as to something hidden.

NOTE: We have deliberately illustrated these gridle stones in gray so as to distinguish them from the passage and the other stones, in truth however they were constructed of the same yellow Tura limestone as the rest of the interior blocks. The only stones here of notable difference would be the three red or pink granite plug stones.

On closer examination of the “Trial Passages” it was observed that where the Ascending passage and the Descending passage met the passage contracted or tapered up at the bottom as though it were ready to accept plug blocks. Whether or not this was exactly how it was done in the pyramid itself is not specified in the Edgars examinations, but it is most likely how it was done.

The only reason we bring this up is because it has a direct effect on how we calculate the précised “Point of Intersection”, which is critical to many of the time measurements provided by the pyramid, however there possibly is a way in which this was accomplished without sacrificing the integrity of the measurements. The stone cutters simply tapered the bore of the gridle stone which served to lock the first of the three stones in place. In this way the passage maintained its précised dimensions as well as its degree of incline.

However it is very possible that this tapering was so minuscule that it had very little to no effect upon the point of intersection, but was nevertheless sufficient enough to lock the plug in place. The “Trial Passages” we believe were simply designed as a pattern or replica through which to work out the details.

Managing the granite plug stones would prove quite a chore as they’re estimated individual weight is at nearly 7 tons a piece. It is highly likely as illustrated that they would have positioned several temporary stones into place first, stones upon which to better facilitate sliding the great stones into place.

You will note we have also hinted at another possible way in which the plug could have been locked into place, instead of tapering the bore of the gridle stone, the first granite stone itself is tapered like a cork, and then inserted into the gridle stone, the larger end of the plug would then catch the sides of the bore as soon as both ends of the rear of the stone entered the bore of the gridle. The other two plug stones would possibly share the same dimensions (height and width) as the front of the first plug and therefore be much easier to slide into place.

Now as to our “angular” or “concealing stone” and how it may have come to be placed in its unique position. Remember the object of this stone was to conceal the entrance to the ascending passage. This stone would have been place while they were laying the sixth course of masonry, prior to the plugs. Now at first one might assume that it would have been much easier to simply set the concealing stone first, temporarily bracing it with something to hold it up into its position (possibly some short wood beams), which would then later be removed, but……. there is a purpose behind laying the partial gridle first. The gridle above, the stone below and the unique degree of angle of the ascending passage would in the end all work together to hold this particular cut or “angled” stone precisely in its place, this even without any cement.

Consider gravity; the force of gravity acting upon any object is that object’s weight or mass. If you held a baseball bat out before you horizontally and dropped it, which end would hit the ground first the handle or the hitting end? Which end generally weights more? Now which end of our stone most likely carries the most weight? So if this block were dropped in what direction would it most likely fall? Of course it would fall straight down, but would it not likewise (if dropped from a sufficient height) begin to rotate with the heaviest end coming around and down first?

Because of gravity and the unique 26 degree angle of the Ascending passage the large angular stone becomes wedged at the top and locked at the bottom as gravity attempts to row it out (the gridle stone positioned above greatly aids in supporting this stone). However first we need to get our stone into position. In order to accomplish this it would first require positioning the stone into the passage by means of a temporary support stone (as we had illustrated in the diagram above), and then in order to get it to slide in without becoming locked into place to soon a small thin wedge of some sort would be inserted beneath the bottom edge to keep it perpendicular with the passage (this and most likely the assistance of men bracing it in some form or fashion from beneath). When the stone was positioned at a point just about flush with the descending passage this wedge along with any braces beneath would be removed and gravity would do its work causing the stone to row forward locking it into the correct position.

This would not necessarily require any cement, however some may have been applied to the upper joint as this joint would have naturally been a bit lager than the joint found at the bottom. In our illustration we have exaggerated the size of this joint merely so as to emphasize it. One could see then how the forced entry by Al Mamoun’s men might have caused this stone to give way, if in their work they had caused the stone below upon which the angular stone was locked to break off as evidently it had as is apparent from the diagram below taken from the Edgar brother’s notes (note the red areas). Once these pieces broke off especially the bottom piece the angular stone would have dropped down into the descending passage.

Let us consider how our unique passage angle of 26 degrees applies to our “angular stone”, and what would be the consequences if we were to utilize another degree of angle. Let us first consider if we were to use a slightly lower degree of angle what then might be the consequences.

At 21 degrees our angular stone would increase somewhat in size adding extra head weight to the stone, this in turn means a greater gravitational force pulling the stone downward. It is very much possible that instead of locking in like the original stone that the forces exerted upon the lower supporting stone in this example would prove too much and cause it to fracture. Of course this is only an assumption. However the true problem with this particular degree of angle is that it would destroy the time measurements and symbolisms of the Great Pyramid.

What about a higher degree of angle, how would this work out for us?

Although our angular stone is much smaller now, smaller even than the original stone, the problem now is twofold. At this particular angle there is little to no pressure on the ceiling to wedge the block into place, as we have reached the point where the force of gravity becomes stronger than the friction force, thus we have nothing locking our stone at the bottom either, and unless our stone were sufficiently cemented into place it would fall out. In fact even if it were cemented, although the cement might hold true over the centuries (as has been proven elsewhere), the stone itself and or those surrounding it might still be subject to fracturing over the 3000 year period in which it had remained. However once again the true problem with this angle is what it does to the “stone witness”, how it destroys its witness as can readily be seen by the diagram below.

In our next post we will take a look at the symbolism of the First Ascending passage.



The Great Pyramid, Part 20

The Great Pyramid, Part 20

We continue once again with the Edgar brother’s examination of the First Ascending Passage.

“Since his return (from Jerusalem), John and I (Morton Edgar) have been working in the First Ascending Passage, verifying the measurements taken by Jack and me. Measuring in this passage is very trying. The joints on the walls seem so hopelessly confused that we had been inclined many times to give up in despair. However, we felt that we must continue, as otherwise the time already spent would be wasted.

Our labor has been rewarded, for what at first was confusion to us, is now seen to be wonderful symmetry. There is design in the whole passage. This we discovered when we had carefully drawn to scale an elevation of each of the walls, in conjunction with plans of the floor and ceiling Plate CXXVIII (See the second diagram below.)

In Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, 5th edition, page 295, Professor C. Piazzi Smyth inserted the following as a foot- note: “In the year 1872, Mr. Waynman Dixon applied himself long and steadily to mapping down everything measurable touching the reputed disorder of the joint-lines in the First Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid, or that one leading up to the lower north end of the Grand Gallery; and presently perceived a most admirable order pervading the apparent disorder, tending also to hyper-excellent masonic construction. For the chief discovery was, that at stated intervals the smaller blocks forming elsewhere separately portions of the walls, floor, and ceiling of the passage, were replaced by great transverse plates of stone, with the whole of the passage’s hollow rectangular bore cut clean through them; wherefore, at these places, the said plates formed walls, floor, and ceiling, all in one piece.”

These plates of stone have been called Girdles. Before leaving home we had recognized the importance of the three upper ones as *marking important dates in the Law Dispensation.’ We therefore examined them with care, and found that while all of the Girdles are differentiated from the other stones in this passage by their remarkable structure, the other three are distinguished by symmetrical joints in the stones above and below them. An examination of these joints, as shown in the diagram—Plate CXXVIII, will demonstrate the exact symmetry of their angles one with another (We have highlighted them in Medium Gray so as to more easily distinguish this fact). Additionally, inserted into the walls immediately below the three upper Girdles, there are peculiar inset stones, which look like pointers, as if to call the Pyramid students’ special attention to these Girdles. And as if still further to accentuate their importance, you will note that the inset “pointer” stones are inserted into especially large wall stones, highlighted in Dark Gray in our diagram.

For the purpose of reference we have numbered the Girdles, beginning from the upper or south end of the passage, and counting downward—Compare with Plate XI. We find that the distance from the upper extremity of the passage to the lower joint of the first Girdle, is almost twice the distance between the lower joints of the first and second; while the distance between the first and second Girdles is nearly the same as that between the second and third, lower joint-lines in each case.’

*These are explained in Vol. II of Great Pyramid Passages; but we were unable to discover chronological significance in the lower Girdles.

Almost exactly in the center of the double space between the upper end of the passage and the first Girdle’s lower joint-line, the joints in the floor and both walls are nearly continuous with each other, forming, therefore, what we might term a Girdle Joint (Highlighted in Red). Inserted into the east wall immediately below this Girdle Joint (In between the word “East” and “Wall”), and as if to call attention to it, are two small inset stones, somewhat similar to the pointers immediately below the three important Girdles. The upper part of the passage from the top or south end down to the lower joint of the third Girdle is, therefore, divided into four parts of nearly equal length.

It is interesting to notice that the inset pointer-stones alternate, first on the east wall below the Girdle Joint, then on the west wall below the first Girdle, then on the east wall below the second Girdle, and finally on the west wall below the third Girdle. These inset stones were noticed by Mr. J. E. Perring in 1837, and are partially illustrated in Plate II of his great book of plates; but, so far as we are aware, the diagram we here present (Plate CXXVIII) is the only one in existence which shows the distinctive and symmetrical arrangement of the masonry of the First Ascending Passage in its entirety. Referring to the inset stones, Mr. Perring, filled with the theory that the Great Pyramid was a tomb, says: “In the upper [First Ascending] Passage, holes have been cut, which are now filled up, for the insertion of levers or beams to raise the sarcophagus.” Look once more at the diagram, Plate CXXVIII, and note the position and arrangement of the inset stones, and the symmetry of the whole passage: you will agree that Mr. Perring’s explanation is, to say the least, inadequate!

The three upper Girdles are vertical (See Plate XI), and square across from east to west, and are each composed of two stones, an upper and a lower, the upper forming the roof and part of both walls, and the lower the floor and the remainder of the walls. The joints on the walls of the passage between the upper and lower portions of each Girdle are horizontal, but are not opposite each other. In the first and third Girdles which, we have seen, are indicated by pointers on the west wall, the joint on the west is higher, or nearer the roof, than its companion on the east wall; while in the second Girdle, which is indicated by a pointer on the east wall, the east joint is higher than the west. It would therefore appear that the two stones which form each Girdle are not set horizontally one upon the other from east to west, but at an angle. The above two diagrams depict the third girdle illustrating how the two stones were joined together. The craftsmanship of the stone cutters were amazing, each stone needed not only to be cut so as to perfectly align with one another horizontally, but at the same time the exact degree of incline of the Ascending Passage needed to be maintained as it cut through the center of these great stones.

Those Girdles which lie lower down the passage than the three just described, are all in contact with one another. Though, like the first three, they are vertical, they do not lie square across the passage; their joint-lines on the floor and roof incline upward diagonally from the east wall to the west wall. Some of these lower Girdles are formed out of a single stone. As can be seen in the diagram (Plate CXXVIII), the fourth Girdle is very irregular in shape, its south face being cut to form no less than six distinct joint-lines with the stones above it.

The whole of the passage from the fourth Girdle down to the upper end of the Granite Plug is much dilapidated, extensive exfoliation having taken place on walls, roof and floor. Accurate measuring at this part is therefore almost impossible. However, we tried our best to get the exact positions of all the joints by stretching lines tightly along the four angles formed by the walls with the roof and floor, and taking off-sets to these lines from the various joints. Indications in the masonry forming the roof at this dilapidated part show that the stones which form the Girdles here were built in solid, end to end, after which the bore of the passage was cut through them. Above the fourth Girdle, however, there can be no doubt that the passage was constructed in the usual way, i.e., that the floor was first laid, the walls erected at the proper distance apart on the floor, and the roof-stones then placed on top of the wall-stones. Nevertheless, it is quite probable that the stones forming the three upper Girdles were built in entire, and the bore of the passage cut through them in situ. The two roof-stones immediately above and below each of the three upper Girdles, are in themselves partial girdles, thus further calling attention to the importance of these three prominent Girdles.

And yet, to the casual visitor to the Pyramid, and even to the observer who keeps his eyes about him, none of this wonderful symmetry in the masonry of the First Ascending Passage is clearly visible. The joints between the stones are in most instances so close that it is difficult to locate their exact positions, more especially as they appear to run in all directions. The first impression one gets from an endeavor to understand the system of masonry in this passage, is that it is without order. Here is the impression which Professor C. Piazzi Smyth had formed of it: “The walls show sometimes vertical and sometimes perpendicular-to-passage joints, and these are now and then confusedly interfered with by parts of horizontal courses of masonry. Altogether, there is smaller and less perfect masonry employed in the First Ascending Passage than in the Entrance Passage; giving the practical impression of the former being a necessary means of communicating between the Entrance Passage and the Grand Gallery, and having little or no symbolic importance in itself.” We have reason to believe, however, that Professor Smyth latterly came to see the important symbolical significance of this Passage; that it represents the Law Dispensation, the Age during which God had special dealings with the Jewish nation by virtue of their Law Covenant, even as the Grand Gallery symbolizes that Dispensation which follows the Jewish Age, namely the Gospel Age.

Because of the intercepting Granite Plug, and dilapidation’s, it is difficult to obtain a continuous end-to-end measurement for the length of the First Ascending Passage. Between the published figures of Professors Smyth and Petrie there is a difference of nearly 2¾ inches. A total length of very slightly over 1545 British inches (1543.464 +Pyramid inches.), from the “Point of Intersection” on the floor of the Descending Passage, up to the vertical line of the north wall of the Grand Gallery, is a fair mean between these two measures, and is the figure which yields harmony throughout the Scriptural time-measurements, and the scientific features connected with this passage. The floor-length from the upper, or southern, end of the Granite Plug, up to the vertical line of the north wall of the Grand Gallery is, according to Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, 1291.2, but according to Professor Flinders Petrie, 1293.8, British inches. According to our understanding, the theoretically correct value is a mean between these two extremes, or about 1292 1/4 British inches (1290.946 + Pyramid inches.). Regarding his measured length of the Granite Plug, namely, 178.8 British inches, Professor Smyth wrote: “It was so very difficult and roundabout to measure, that I do not attach much value to the numbers.” Professor Petrie, we believe, secured a truer length: his measure, 178.5 British inches, being barely ⅛ of an inch more than the theoretically correct amount, which is 178.189 + Pyramid inches, the figures which we now adopt.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 281-285)

Once again we will continue with our next post.


The Great Pyramid, Part 19

The Great Pyramid, Part 19


Having we believe thoroughly examined the Subterranean Chamber of the Great Pyramid we now follow the Edgar’s back up the Descending passage and out through the little gate which led us to the pit.

“Immediately above or north of the granite stone on which the grill-door is fixed, there is an irregular opening in the west wall of the Descending Passage (In the second picture presented above you are looking down from this opening to the grill-door or gate which they have just passed, which implies that you are coming up and under toward the western side of the granite plug standing on or about the level of the 6th or 7th course of masonry.)

When we stepped through this opening, we found ourselves in a large cavernous space. This cavity with its opening from the Descending Passage was hollowed out in the masonry eleven hundred years ago by Caliph Al Mamoun, son of Harun Al Raschid of Arabian Nights’ fame. After entering the cavity, when we turned round and looked up, holding our candles above our heads, we saw that the west side of the upper two-thirds of the Granite Plug, already mentioned, had been exposed by Al Mamoun’s excavation.

The small space between the lower end of the Granite Plug, and the roof-line of the Descending Passage, was originally closed by a smooth limestone block similar to the other stones which form the roof of the Descending Passage, and in line with them (as depicted in the diagram above). So effectually did this limestone block conceal the entrance of the First Ascending Passage, that none of the classic nations knew of the existence of the upper passages and chambers. Later, the little of what was once known by ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, was lost, for even the site of entrance to the Great Pyramid became forgotten. Consequently, when Caliph Al Mamoun, with the mistaken idea that the Great Pyramid contained treasures of gold and precious stones, desired to enter it and explore its wonders, there was only an indistinct rumor to guide him towards trying the northern rather than any other side of the monument. He selected a spot in the middle line on the seventh course of masonry, and, therefore, several feet below and to the right of the true Entrance. Here he caused his workmen to force a passage horizontally into the great mass of the Pyramid. (This theory of course has been debated by many scholars as discussed in one of our earlier post, The Great Pyramid, Part 11).

It is reported that after weeks of fruitless quarrying, the Caliph’s despairing workmen were disposed to abandon their task, when one day they heard a noise as if something had fallen in an interior space a few feet from where they were. They immediately set to work eastwards in the direction of the sound, and soon burst into the Descending Passage, thus forming the irregular opening already described. There they found that the noise had been caused by the falling of the large angular stone, which for ages had formed part of the roof of the Descending Passage, and had sealed up the entrance to the upper passages and chambers. In this way, the Pyramid’s most important structural secret was revealed for the first time since the erection of the building; and had it not been for the shaking of the masonry which caused the roof-stone to become dislodged and fall, the upper passages might even yet have remained unknown.

But the workmen, though they had discovered the First Ascending Passage, found that access into it is prevented by the Granite Plug, which is so tightly wedged that it is impossible to remove it entire, and so hard that it would be extremely difficult to break up. They chose the easier plan of breaking and removing the limestone blocks to the right or west of the Granite Plug, and so forced their way upwards into the passage above. This discovery of the upper passages was made in the year 820 A.D.; and as the Great Pyramid was built about the year 2140 B.C., their existence must have been unknown for practically three thousand years!

Imagine, when they laid the first of the great ceiling stones above the Kings Chamber this would be the last time any man would set foot in these upper passages, and when the second stone above that was laid the last time light would shine in its grand corridors for nearly three thousand years. Think of the history that transpired during this time. 155 years after its completion (roughly B.C. 2140), God would establish his covenant with Abraham. 430 years after this (after the covenant made with Abraham), the Jews would begin their Exodus from Egypt and God would establish the Law Covenant with the nation of Israel. Nearly 1600 years later (1553 to be precise) Jesus would be born in Bethlehem and not soon after the Jewish age would end and the Gospel Age would begin. It would yet be another 800 or so years later shortly following the crowning of Charlemagne as Emperor that the upper passages would be discovered once again.

To resume: having passed through the forced hole in the west wall of the Descending Passage into the cavernous hollow, and then, taking advantage of a ledge and a series of notches on the high south-east wall of the hollow (Today replaced by carved steps in the stone as noted above), we climbed to the upper end of the Granite Plug and gained access to the First Ascending Passage, which runs in the same vertical plane and at the same angle to the horizon as the Descending Passage. We were now able to inspect the upper butt-end of the Granite Plug, which is shown to advantage in the second photo above.

To proceed up the First Ascending Passage, we required to stoop uncomfortably low, for, like the Descending Passage, its roof is scarcely four feet above its floor. When, however, we reach the place where, to our joy, we found a level floor, and abundance of room to stand erect and so relieve our aching backs, we were now at the lower end of the noblest passage in the Great Pyramid, which has been well name the Grand Gallery. This Gallery ascends in the same vertical plane, and at the same angle, as the First Ascending Passage, the inclined floors of both being continuous. The reason why we stepped on to a level floor on emerging from the First Ascending Passage is because another passage, called the Horizontal Passage, also has its beginning at this place. We will examine these areas more thoroughly later, but for now we would like to continue our examination of the First Ascending Passage. (“The Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers”, Page 59-65)

Continued with next post.




Creation, Part 8

Creation, Part 8

The First Day (The Year of the World 46,128 B.C.)

The creative days of Genesis were actually epoch days consisting of geologic periods, most logically of equal lengths. It is unnecessary to insist that these days were only 24 hours since the same word for “day” (Hebrew “yom”) is elsewhere used to denote longer periods also termed a “day”: Note Psa 95:8, “the day of temptation in the wilderness” (40 years); Gen 2:4, “in the day that … God made the earth and the heavens” (covering all six epoch days, 42,000 years), Acts 17:31, “He has appointed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness…”(the millennial day, 1000 years).

Having we hope proven from our study of The True Bible Chronology that the seventh day of creation is to last 7000 years until its completion, and knowing the Almighty to be a God of order and purpose it is but reasonable to assume that the previous six creative days were likewise of the same duration. Since we know that Adam was created at the very end of the sixth creative day in 4128 B.C. we simply add 42,000 years to this and we have the date of the first creative day 46,128 B.C.)

 Genesis Verse 3-5

And God said, let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided between the light and the darkness, and God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the First Day.” (the end of the first 7000 year day, bringing us to the year 39,128 B.C.)

The nature and physical cause of light is as yet but imperfectly comprehended–no satisfactory solution of the query, what is light? Has yet appeared we do know, however, that it is a prime essential throughout nature; and we are not surprised to find it first in the divine order when the time came for divine energy to operate upon the waste and empty earth to prepare it for man.

The nature of the divine energy represented by “brooding” would seem to be vitalizing, (empowering) possibly electrical energies and lights such as the aurora borealis, or northern lights. Or, possibly, the energy brought down some of the heavy rings of aqueous and mineral matter, and thus the light and darkness, day and night, became distinguishable, though neither stars nor moon nor sun were in the slightest degree discernible through the heavy canopy (mist) and rings, which still enveloped the earth.

“God’s spirit “hovering” or “brooding” upon the face of the waters is a very intriguing description of his very first act in this epoch. This was Divine Energy radiating outward upon the primitive seas, producing what only Divine Power can accomplish — the appearance of the earliest forms of life. It is gratifying to note that science agrees with this sequence that earliest life stemmed from the oceans! However, these earliest marine creatures were not crude or partially developed, as some would portray them, but were complex wonders in their own right.”

Evening and morning–Day One” As with the Hebrew solar days, so also with these epoch-days, the evening came first, gradually accomplishing the divine purpose to its completion, when another 7,000-year day, apportioned to another work, would begin darkly, and progress to perfection. This period, or “day,” is scientifically described as the Azoic, or lifeless period, also dubbed the inorganic era.

Rotherham suggests the “light” of this day was diffused, in contrast to the more distinguishable light afforded on the Fourth Day. (Opaque Cloud Opacity: This describes thick clouds which do not allow light to pass directly, although light can diffuse through them. Such thick clouds often look gray. At such times it is almost impossible to tell where precisely the Sun is. The sun being concealed from view nevertheless illuminated the Canopy, which diffused its light to Earth’s surf. Although the picture above is most likely thick fog or midst it gives somewhat an idea as to what we are describing.) This is consistent with the * Vailian or Canopy theory, which visualizes the earth as a flaming mass shortly after creation, a glowing waste, which vaporized the waters and other minerals into bands or canopies that encircled the earth.

Likewise alluded to in Job 38:9 where the Lord in reference to the creation of the earth states, Where were you, “when I made the clouds its garment, and thick darkness its swaddling band “ As the various rings or bands cooled, they fell back to earth in layered deposits, allowing the atmosphere to gradually clear.

Note the following definitions as given by Strong’s

6051, “clouds” as covering the sky

3830, “garment” clothed with

6205, “thick darkness” from 6201 to droop; hence, to drip, drop down, gloom as of a lowering sky

2854, “swaddling band” a swathing cloth, figuratively swaddling band

Note the definition of “swaddle” as taken from the New Oxford American Dictionary, to wrap someone (or something) in garments or cloth. Now also the word “swaddling clothesnarrow bands of cloth formerly wrapped around a newborn.

The analogy given here in Job appears to confirm the Canopy Theory, that at one time the earth was covered in darkness by a thick layer of clouds consisting of waters and minerals, which had risen up as gases due to the extreme heat of the earth, and that these encompassed the earth in an impenetrable canopy extending for miles around the earth in every direction. Pictured above is Venus, the earth at one time may have resembled this, shrouded in a garment of clouds as it slowly cooled and its rings one by one fell to the earth.

Note: a distinction should be made between “rings and bands”, i.e. layers of clouds consisting of various gases, minerals and water forming the atmosphere, and “rings” as in those which are found circling several of the gas giants. These outer rings are made up of dust, rock (minerals) and ice. Although it is possible as alluded to in one of our earlier posts that the early earth may have had such rings especially in its infancy when forming its first primordial atmosphere, barring the fact that it was a much hotter world and spinning at a much faster rate days lasting a mere 2-5 hours, nevertheless we would assume that by day one of creation due to its much cooler temperature (still hot, but now able to form a much more solid surface), this and its much slower rotation speed due in part to the size and gravitational friction of its new moon, that if there were any rings circling the planet  they would have long since disappeared most likely having rejoined the clouds circling the earth.

NOTE: Here we would like to amend our previous statement that by the first creative day the earth had lost its rings, further investigation and study now leads us to believe the rings were still there. This will become more evident as we continue our study.

*The author of the Vailian Theory, Isaac Newton Vail, a Quaker, was born in Ohio in 1840, where he taught school, later becoming an oil and gas prospector. In 1874 he published a pamphlet called The Waters above the Firmament”, now although we believe the general premise of his theory appears to be sound and in harmony with the record of creation as it is depicted in the Bible, we nevertheless understand it to be only a “theory”, not all of which we are in agreement with nor agrees with known science. However it does seem rather coincidental that this particular view or “theory” should be published when it was (in A.D. 1874).

Likewise consider the fact that it is clearly stated that the sun and the moon did not appear until the fourth day (Gen 1:14-19), and since logically the sun and the moon had existed prior to this even from the beginning when God first created the heavens and the earth then obviously something obscured these “two great luminaries” from view. 

We shall examine the second “day” or epoch in our next post.