Browsed by
Month: June 2017

Creation, Part 13

Creation, Part 13

THE FIFTH DAY (The Year of the World 18,128 B.C.)

And God said: Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures [living souls], and let winged things wing above the earth in the open expanse of heaven. And God created the great monsters, and every living creature that glided swiftly, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged thing after its kind: and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let winged things multiply in the earth. And there was evening and there was morning, the Fifth Day.’’ (Gen 1: 20–23)

How the warm oceans of the earth swarmed with living creatures, from the jellyfish to the whale, may be judged by the profusion of life in the warm southern seas at the present time. Reptiles, living partly in the water and partly on the land (amphibious) belong also to this period, during which present continents and islands were gradually rising and again subsiding, at one time deluged by larger or smaller rings coming down, and at another washed by tidal waves. No wonder the remains of shellfish, etc., are found in the highest mountains. And no wonder the immense beds of limestone in all parts of the world are sometimes called “shellfish cemeteries,” because composed almost exclusively of conglomerate shells. What a swarming there must have been when those untellable trillions of little creatures were born and, dying dropped one by one their little shells! We read that–God blessed them in multiplying. Yes, even so lowly an existence and for so brief a time is a favor, a blessing.

All glory and honor to our loving Father who grants his favor even to the lowliest of creatures, Amen

“Scientists have found fossils of whales and other marine animals in mountain sediments in the Andes, indicating that the South American mountain chain rose very rapidly from the sea. The rare assemblage of fossils, recovered on an expedition by the American Museum of Natural History to a remote plateau in southern Chile, is expected not only to illuminate an obscure epoch of animal evolution but also to document the rise of the Andes Mountains in the past 15 million years.

Among the fossils the scientists reported bringing back were the bones of whales and other marine animals found at altitudes of more than 5,000 feet. When these animals died from 15 million to 20 million years ago (?), their carcasses settled to the ocean floor and were embedded in submarine sediments. But since then, the violent up-thrusting of the Andean chain has carried the sediments to the tops of mountains. In geological terms, the time the fossils took to rise from ocean floor to mountain top was relatively brief (Actually a lot briefer than they could imagine, in other words the process was accomplished in thousands of years not millions).”

Although it is possible that many of these marine fossils could have been deposited high into the mountains following the flood of Noah’s day nevertheless for the most part we are inclined to believe as stated in the article that these marine fossils arrived there following the rise of the Andes. It’s only natural that the remains of shells and other sea life would have washed up along the coastline over the centuries and then following several deluges in which the sea bed was depressed the mountains would rise carrying with them the remains of these dead sea creatures.

(Whale fossils high in Andes show how mountains rose from sea, by Malcolm W. Browne Article Published: March 12, 1987 in The New York Times)

Our great God is depicted here as one who delights in creating — bringing forth multitudinous varieties of life under the widest possible range of conditions. Biologists identify some 9,000 species of fish, 6,000 of reptiles, 9,000 of birds and 700,000 species of insects, not to mention a wide variety of modern plants brought forth in this epoch. Each displays contrasts in size, shape, texture, color and structure; and all are part of the breathtakingly beautiful environment, which the Divine Architect planned for the enjoyment of his highest earthly creation — man himself.

Let us not contend for more than the Scripture record demands. The Bible does not assert that God created separately and individually the myriad kinds of fish and reptiles; but merely that divine influence, or spirit, brooded, and by divine purpose the sea brought forth its creatures of various kinds. Thus it may be that a measure of evolution took place in the brining forth of these various creatures, however even this under divine supervision. The processes are not declared, no man knows, and it is unwise to be dogmatic.

It is not for us to dispute that even the protoplasm of the Paleozoic slime may not have come into existence through chemical action of the highly mineralized waters of those seas. What we do claim is that all came about as results of divine intention and arrangement, and, hence, were divine creations; whatever were the channels and agencies. And we claim that this is shown by the facts of nature no less than by the words of Genesis; that however the creatures of the sea were produced, they were brought to the condition in which each is, of its own kind–where the lines of species cannot be overridden. This is God’s work, by whatever means brought about.

“We note also, there must have been time within this “day” to permit the arrival of successive generations of the various animals, and while these were practically all egg-laying, it still required time considerably in excess of twenty-four hours to produce even one generation, not to speak of “filling the waters of the seas,” and producing merely one generation would hardly be “multiplying in the earth.” Hence the context indicated that the writer did not have in mind a literal 24-hour day, but ratheran indefinite period of time.”

The King James “whales” is better translated “monsters,” which allows for great land animals as well as sea creatures. This fifth day was the Reptilian Age, the age of the dinosaurs, meaning terrible lizards,” and although the ring and canopy theory does not require millions of years, the various strata laid down during this period indicate a lapse of time of several thousands of years (specifically 7000 years).

As stated in the King James Version we read the word “whales” in place of the word “sea-monsters.” The Hebrew word used here could likewise imply “land and marine monsters,” and what better description could we use for the giant saurians, lizards, of the Reptilian Age? The translators of the King James Version, had never heard of a dinosaur, never knew they had even existed, much less know of their habits and habitats. The largest monster of which they knew was a whale, hence the translation. But whales are mammals and did not make their appearance on the earthly scene until the next age or “yom.” Again, this passage insists upon the operation of the law of the fixity of species.

Two of the better translations of this verse are found in the following versions,

“And God prepareth the great monsters, and every living creature that is creeping, which the waters have teamed with, after their kind, and every fowl with wing, after its kind, and God seeth that it is good.” Gen 1:21 Young’s Literal Translation

“And God created the great dragons and every living soul that moves, which the waters brought forth abundantly after their nature and every winged fowl after its nature; and God saw that it was good.” Gen 1:21 Jubilee Bible 2000 Version

They were of great variety in size, some reaching 40 tons in weight. One of the largest and longest animals ever found to walk on earth was the Diplodocus, — 16 feet tall and 85 feet from head to tip of tail! Since that time fossil remains have been found suggesting even lager behemoths once walked the earth, such as the (Titanosaur) Argentinosaurus and the Mamenchissaurus the largest of which may have reached 35 m (115 ft.) in length and possibly weighed 50 to 75 tons.

Modern birds and plants now also appeared in all their color, beauty and high degree of specialization. Every flowering plant has its own special seed and pollen and an extraordinary intricacy of design. Their sudden arrival on the scene, as with the various reptilian species, without any gradual development in preceding fossil ages, remains an unsolved puzzle to the evolutionist.

This day, or epoch, corresponds very well to the Reptilian age or what geology designates as the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods, evening and morning–Day Five– 35,000 years from the commencement of the work of ordering the earth as man’s home and kingdom.

But questions still remain, why? Why Dinosaurs? What was their purpose? If all God’s works are perfect, why create such creatures only to do away with them after a short time?

Despite our misgivings concerning this issue we can be assured that God is to wise to err, that he who knew the end from the beginning knew exactly what he was doing and as such we are satisfied. Nevertheless we can still speculate.

First let us allow our evolutionist friends attempt to answer our questions.

Why Dinosaurs, what was their purpose?

There was no purpose, “They’re the result of random chance and accumulated change.”

Dinosaurs existed because they fit well within their ecological niches; that is to say they were perfectly adaptable to the environment in which they appeared.

“Everything alive today is the result of random mutations that happened to benefit everything that came before us.”

“Evolution has no necessities and no plan to reach some end destination that requires a specific path.”

“Evolution is a completely random process.”

“If you want to bring God into it and why he might have made them, my answer when a kid at Sunday school asked about dinosaurs was that they are God’s way of making birds.”

“What they contributed to the future were birds. Birds *are* dinosaurs.”

So then are dinosaurs simply a result of random chance? What saith the Lord who created all things?

 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” Acts 15:18

If one takes the time to ponder the situation it seems only right that the Lord should introduce dinosaurs at this particular time in the creation process, for by this time vegetation, trees, plants, and scrubs having run rank for well over 14,000 years would most likely by this time covered the entire land surface of the world, this in accordance with the divine intention would have speedily aided in purifying the atmosphere in preparation for oxygen breathing animals. Now however the time had come to “mow the lawn” to cut back on the foliage which had over taken the earth, and what better way to accomplish this task then to introduce some of the largest vegetarians (herbivores) ever known to walk the face of the earth.

But what of the carnivores do not the Scriptures imply that prior to the flood both man and beasts were all vegetarians?

Ah! Yes a very astute observation,

The scriptural account is that prior to the flood neither man nor beast were carnivorous (flesh eaters).

And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. AND to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.” Gen 1:29, 30

The notable exception here is the living creatures which dwell within the sea.

Accordingly both man and beast alike were vegetarians up until the flood, and then something dramatic occurred which brought about a change in all this, for following the departure of Noah and his sons from the Ark the LORD forthwith exclaimed,

And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. Every moving thing that lives shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.” Gen 9:2, 3

We understand the reason for the addition of meat as a food source, was that conditions had so changed after the flood as not only to shorten life, but also to greatly impair human (AND animal) strength, making necessary the nerve strength obtainable from animal food.

“The fact that for beast and for fowl the Lord originally provided the same vegetarian diet, is in perfect accord with some of the prophetic statements which seem to imply that under the new conditions of the Kingdom even the lower animals will return to a vegetarian diet, viz.

The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust shall be the serpent’s meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain (the very microbes of disease and pestilence shall be restrained), saith the LORD.” Isa 65:25

The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the young goat, the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox… they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain.” (Isa 11:6, 7)

Thus we learn that those animals which at present are carnivorous (flesh-eaters) are not now in their original condition, but have been sharers with mankind in the results of the catastrophe which came upon our earth following the flood; likewise that they will be sharers with man, their king, in the great uplift (restoration of all thingsActs 3:19-21), which will come to him and to all nature when God’s Kingdom, in the hands of the Sons of God, shall be established, and shall bless the groaning creation.” (Rom 8:19-22) R 2837

Does this imply that dinosaurs were subject to the same restraints? No we can’t say for sure as stated there is some speculation that the great “monsters” mentioned as created on the fifth day Gen 1:21 refer not only to sea monsters but to land monsters as well and as such could allow for an “exception” to the rule in the case of dinosaurs as possibly they too are classified with the rest of the living creatures which dwell or came forth from the sea, to which as stated nothing was said that they were under the same restraints as that of the rest of the creation prior to the flood, of course this is only conjecture on our part, as always it is best not to go beyond what is written. If the Lord does not specifically state the facts then we can reasonably conclude that it is not of prime importance, and so whether one chooses to believe one way or another is not of any importance, in the end it’s up to the individual.

Perhaps meat eaters were introduced in order to keep the population of this particular species under control, otherwise they could have very well have eaten their way out of house and home (perhaps this was the true reason for their demise, the lack of food). In the end it seems apparent that these creatures were of divine intention, design with a specific purpose in mind one which when accomplished their presence would no longer be required and so they were removed from the surface of the earth. Nevertheless as was said in regards to the lowly shell fish so too in regards to these great creatures, we read that–God blessed them in multiplying, and even though they remained upon the earth for but a short time (short in the overall scheme of things) nevertheless life in any form and for any amount of time is a blessing.

Now as to the assertion that birds are dinosaurs, we tend to disagree, the Scriptures are pretty clear,

So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.”

Here a distinction is made between the sea creatures and every living thing that moves (presumably those things which came forth from the sea to dwell upon the earth), each according to its kind, and every winged bird likewise according to its kind.

Sea creatures are one kind and every winged bird another kind. Though birds may share some similarities with dinosaurs (specifically in their bone structure) that does not imply that they are of the same kind no more than the fact that apes and humans share similarities prove that they are one in the same kind.

A popular article often referred to, to contradict the thought of fixity of species is that involving the sockeye salmon introduced into Lake Washington, between 1937 and 1945 in a study it had been shown that these had split into two reproductively isolated populations (i.e., two separate species) in fewer than 13 generations (a maximum of 56 years). Andrew P. Hendry et al., “Rapid Evolution of Reproductive Isolation in the Wild: Evidence from Introduced Salmon,” Science 290 (2000): 516–518, this however does not imply a change of “kind”, these two so-called new species were still of the same kind or genera (genus: a class, group, or kind with common attributes, believed to share the same ancestry), i.e. they were still FISH, they did not evolve into another “kind”, into birds, animals or what have you.

The same applies to reptiles although they may consist of many species within their genus they are nevertheless still of one kind and cannot evolve into another kind. The Lord has set boundaries which cannot be crossed.

We will continue with the Sixth Day of Creation with our next post.


Creation, Part 12

Creation, Part 12

A recap to bring us up to speed:

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” We are told that the qualifying “the” does not appear in the Hebrew, and that hence a more accurate translation would be “a beginning.”

Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” At first the earth was a mass or molten ball of energy, and as an earth it was as yet, unformed, and as far as life was concerned, empty-void. Then we saw that the water and gaseous matters were thrown away from the center core by the great heat generated from this newly forming world, forming a great cloud, or deep, around that core. Since there would be too much earthly material in this deep for the sun’s rays to penetrate to the surface of the core, it would have been true that “darkness was upon the [inside] face of the deep,” even though the sun shown upon the outside, even as it now does upon the planets which still have their canopies.

By this time the waters upon the earth, a boiling steaming mass would have completely cover the surface of the earth at a depth that would have conceal any light generated from under sea volcanoes and or rifts in the earth’s crust.

And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the water.” Whatever may be the theological view of this matter, you will note that the outer surface of the canopy and the rings, largely composed of water, would have been in the bright sunshine, while great masses of earth material was suspended for a time because of the heat rather than rotation, in the space between the core and the lowest canopy, a space roughly 22,000 miles in depth.. Here the word “spirit” is used in the sense of power, and the sun’s rays have had a powerful effect on the events that were to prepare earth for a habitation.

You will note that in this picture we have not shown any rings about the planet, the reason is because there is much debate as to whether or not the earth ever had any such rings, although we believe that it was possible, there are still many variables to consider, first and foremost would be how far within the Roche limit any rings developed.

The Roche limit or radius, is the distance within which a celestial body, held together only by its own gravity, will disintegrate due to a second celestial body’s tidal forces exceeding the first body’s gravitational self-attraction. Inside the Roche limit, orbiting material disperses and forms rings whereas outside the limit material tends to coalesce. (The belief is that after Theia’s collision with the earth most of the material ejected from the impact was forced outside the Roche limit thus eventually coalescing into our moon).

Now as to those “rings” which were supposedly circling above the canopy these would have been the results of the expansion of earthly materials when the earth was at white heat, these materials having been reduced to a gaseous state would have expanded and rose high into the atmosphere, the effect then upon a mass of vapors revolving around the earth would be to throw the outer vapors into rings above the equator.

Although it is true that most currently known transiting extrasolar planets are too close to their parent stars to support icy rings it is nevertheless believed that a significant fraction of them could harbor ring particles made of rock or silicates. Silicates constitute the majority of Earth’s crust, precisely what was turned to a gaseous state and revolving around the earth at the time.

But what could have caused these rings to descend upon the earth? Does not natural law say that a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force? So what force could have caused the decline of these rings? There are several.

Orbital decay can be caused by a multitude of mechanical, gravitational, and electromagnetic effects. For bodies in a low Earth orbit, the most significant effect is the atmospheric drag.” (Atmospheric drag, is the lowest altitude above the Earth at which an object in a circular orbit can complete at least one full revolution without propulsion, this is estimated at 150 km or 90 miles above the surface).

“An orbit can also decay by tidal effects when the orbiting body is large enough to raise a significant tidal bulge on the body it is orbiting and is either in a retrograde orbit (reverse orbit) or is below the synchronous orbit (geosynchronous orbit or GEO). The resulting tidal interaction saps momentum from the orbiting body and transfers it to the primary’s rotation, lowering the orbit’s altitude until frictional effects come into play.” (Orbital decay:

Tidal forces between the earth and the moon could likewise have had an effect, remember the moon was once much closer to the earth than it is now, but as it slowly moved away the tidal forces of the earth would far outweigh those of the moon and thus emit a far greater effect upon the rings, possibly destabilizing their orbit leading to orbital decay.

And then there is the, Poynting-Robertson drag. This is not as much a concern to the gas giants and their ring systems which reside far from the sun, but it is expected to be significant factor on any ring system revolving around an extrasolar planet. Poynting-Robertson drag has the effect of causing the orbit of a ring particle to decay.

“Orbital debris will be acted upon by radiation forces (photon thrust) as well as by gravitation. Solar radiation pressure and the Poynting–Robertson effect are the best known of all the radiation forces. Poynting–Robertson is a V/c effect (where V is the speed and c is the speed of light); it causes orbit decay for dust or ice particles orbiting a luminous body.

The Poynting–Robertson effect is most commonly applied to small particles orbiting the Sun, but it also applies to particles orbiting planets as well as moons, comets, and asteroids, since these all reflect visible light and emit in the infrared.”

As stated there are many variables to be considered, and since none of us were there we can only speculate.

And on the first day, the Lord said,

Let there be light,’ and there was light.” The first falls of material were the heavy massive deposits of the Azoic Age, and with these materials out of the atmosphere, the light could penetrate through the canopies which had formed far out from the core, and of course the rings (?) shadowed only the equatorial regions.

And God called the light day,’ and the darkness He called night,’ and there was evening and there was morning, one day.” In this text, the first use of the word “day” appears, and since Bishop Usher insisted that all “days” mentioned in Genesis were 24-hour days, we note that in its first use, only the light of a period is described asday,” and thedarkis not included. So we go to the Hebrew to see just what Moses intended in translating this passage. We find that both of the words “day” in the above passage are from the Hebrew “yom” or “yome.” This word is translated into English as “age, ever, everlasting, always, continually, evermore, life, as long as, perpetually, day, season, year, space, process of time,” etc. (See Strong’s Concordance or Scott and Liddel’s Lexicon.)

In other words, it refers to any period of time, the length of that period to be determined from the context, or simply as anindefinite period.” We use the word day in English much the same way. A “day” of work may be six, eight or ten hours. The “day” (daylight) varies in length with the latitude. Every “calendar day” is on earth 48 hours. Hitler’s “day” was not as long as Victoria’s “day.”

Now why in the text above does it mentioneveningfirst?

Because as was stated in the second verse there was darkness to begin with (“…and darkness was upon the face of the deep”), and with the fall of the Azoic material during that first “yom,” it became lighter and that period was termed morning. The Jews to this day commence their yom of 24 hours as at sunset, so that evening comes first and the morning as the second half, perhaps an unwitting, but nevertheless, a constant commemoration of the ring and canopy system.

This first yom makes no mention of life, and there was none in the Azoic Age, and even in the next yom, the Paleozoic Age, life was so unimportant, that it is not mentioned in the Genesis account (This however does not imply that there was none). Of this second yom the write stated, “Let there be a firmament [an expanse or separation] in the midst of the water.” That is, “Let there be a space with atmosphere between the waters.”

And let it [the atmosphere] divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament and divided the waters that were under the firmament [the waters already on the surface of the earth] from the waters which are above the firmament [in the canopies and rings], and it was so.” And we will agree that it was so. Surely by the close of the Paleozoic Age all the atmosphere was cleared of water and earth material and the residue was held in the rings and canopies, creating a vast space of separation. “And there was evening and there was morning, a second yome.” Again, we see that with the additional falls of earth material in the Paleozoic Age that the light would be less in the beginning of the age than in the close, especially in view of the fact that that age closed with a heavy downfall of ice, and a glaciated period, which indicates the rupture and fall of one of the heavier canopies.

From the ninth to the thirteenth verse is sketched the work of the Carboniferous Age, during which insects appeared on land, and the trilobites in the seas. The Genesis account assigns the formation of the continents to the third yom, or period, and certainly they must have been formed before life of any kind could be established there. We do not know just where the writer of Genesis begins or ends his “yoms,” and even our modern geologists are rather vague about the exact endings, for from another view it was one continual operation. So it seems sufficient to note that in general the Genesis account agrees with *the seven division of time, and the work of each yom coincides closely with the accomplishments of each Age. We note that the grasses and herbs “yielded their seed,” so at least one full season would be required, and not a single 24-hour day, nor is there anything to preclude that this “indefinite period of time” was thousands of years. The choice of the word “yom” seems to be very appropriate; it is still an indefinite period of time. We also note that the law of fixity of species is mentioned with the first mention of life, and nothing has ever been found to disprove that statement.

And so we reach THE FORTH DAY (The Year of the World 25,128 B.C.)

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years: and let them be for lights in the expanse to give light upon the earth; and it was so. God made [or caused to shine–a different verb not meaning created] two great lights; the greater light for the rule of the day [to indicate the time of day] and the lesser light, the night; the stars also. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth … and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the Fourth Day.” (Gen 1:14–19)

Note: The “firmament” or “heavens” referred to here could apply equally well to both the first and the second literal heavens. Although we know in fact that the lights we see in the heavens are in truth located beyond our atmosphere (in the second literal heavens, the expanse of space), nevertheless because the atmosphere is transparent from our perspective they appear to be in the atmosphere (the first literal heavens, the expanse of the sky).

The achievements of one epoch-day were carried over into the next, and thus we are justified in supposing that the light of the first day became more and more distinct during the next two, as ring after ring of the enveloping canopy came down from the waters above the firmament to the waters below it, until by the fourth epoch-day the sun and moon and stars could be seen; not so clearly as we now see them on a bright day, no not until after Noah’s flood, when the last of these “rings” would fall would it be that clear; but even yet (by the close of the forth day) they were clearly discernible, even though viewed through a translucent veil of waters (the waters above, Gen 1:7)

The canopy of water would begin to thin first over the equator regions as slowly the gravitational pull of the earth’s magnetic poles began to pull the water further and further north and south in preparation for the final deluge which would later come in the days of Noah (Gen 6:17) thus it is that the sun, moon, and stars would first become visible in these regions, particularly clearer over that region known to be the “cradle of our race

The scene might be similar to what might be seen now on a misty day or night. The Sun, moon and stars had long since been shining on the outer veil of the earth, but now the time had come to allow these lights in the firmament to be seen; to let the days–previously marked by a dull, grayish light, such as we see some rainy mornings when the sun, moon and stars are invisible for clouds–become more distinct, so that the orb of day might by its course mark time for man and beast when created, and during the meantime begin to speed up the oxygenation of the air, thus to prepare it for breathing animals.

Later on during this same 7,000-year day, the moon and stars would also appeared—the moon to influence the tides and to be ready to mark time in the night for man’s convenience, and the stars for “signs and seasons”. (Note: tides are affected by the gravitational pull of both the sun and the moon on the earth, this regardless of whether or not they are visible through any canopy.)

“In the 14th to 19th verses it mentions that the sun and moon became visible, as well as some stars. This indicates that the canopies which formed in the fourth or Devonian Age did not carry as much earth material as previous ones. This we saw was a requirement of natural law, and corroborated by the strata of earth. In this age, sometimes termed the age of fishes, no additional life is mentioned in the Genesis account, but the principal event was the increase light from the sun and the moon. Evidently by this time the moon had receded from the earth a sufficient distance to permit the sun to shine at times, upon the face toward the earth, even as it does now. If there had been any person on earth at that time, he could have seen the reflected light of the sun.

The term “and God made two great lights,” does not imply that they were created at that time, and had not been in existence previously, but that they, their outlines becoming visible through the canopy, “were made, the greater to rule the day, and the lesser to rule the night.” Here the Hebrew word “memshalah” is translated “rule,” in the sense of having power, or dominion. And certainly we know that the sun dominates the daylight, and the moon, the night.

Suppose the writer of Genesis had said that the sun and moon were visible in the first yom or age. We would know at once that he was wrong, but he put the visibility of the sun as in the fourth day.

Why did he take the trouble to point that out? Was he not trying to tell us that [up until this time something was obstructing the sun, moon and stars from view] that the canopies, the waters that were above the firmament, were so dense that during those first three periods that the light could not have come through to earth with sufficient brightness that the direct outline of the sun and moon could have been seen, although light filtered through and was diffused. Now by the time man was upon earth and could write the account which appears in Genesis, he had words for both the sun and the moon. But in the account of the fourth day the writer does not make use of those words, but instead uses a word referring to “bearers of diffused light.” Yet at the time of writing he knew the sun both as a light bearer and as a heater! But the writer did use the term “stars.”

In the illustration above the “rings”, if there were any would have resided within the Roche limit and by this time be experiencing orbital decay one following another over time.

We noted that the rings began their spreading out, or declension, at the equatorial regions to form the canopies, and the collapse of the canopy would probably leave the polar skies clear, until another canopy formed. The sun and moon would not have been visible in equatorial regions as they would be obscured by the rings. Is it not strong proof that the ring and canopy theory is at least the most ancient of concepts, when it is the only theory by which the statements of Genesis can be explained? Some translations of this passage use the expression “He made to shine two great lights.” Either translation is consistent with facts.”

Despite what some naïve Christians believe the Sun, Moon, and Stars were not created on the forth day, they had existed all along, long before that, they were merely obscured by the immense canopy of clouds and gases which enveloped the earth, or as the Lord himself makes reference to in Job 38:9, “Where were you, when I made the clouds its garment, and thick darkness its swaddling band.

The Hebrew word “asah” (as found in Gen 1:16), translated “made” in the King James Version, does not mean “to create,” but here signifies “to appoint” (as in Job 14:5; Psa 104:19). God was merely giving a new appointment or function to the sun, etc., to dominate or “rule” in the heavens, which was lacking in the previous Carboniferous Period.

The increased solar radiation brought about dramatic changes in climate in this period and the process of photosynthesis so basic to the cycle of all life on earth was tremulously increased due to the emergence of the sun once obscured by the canopy. It marked the end of the primary era known as the Paleozoic and opened the secondary or Mesozoic Era, with its sweeping changes in life forms adapting to the new hot and dry conditions.

We are not to suppose that the development of plant life ceased during the fourth day, but rather that it progressed –the increased influence of sun and moon serving to bring forward still other varieties of grass and shrubs and trees. Geology shows advances, too, at this period–insects, snails, crabs, etc. Fish-bones and scales are found in coal seams, too; but this does not disturb the order; for the formation of coal-beds evidently continued even after the third day (howbeit not in the traditional sense, that is not according to the vegetation theory)–thus running into the Reptilian period. This “day” corresponds most closely with what geology designates the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods.

It is important to remember that although we as Christians can agree with the terms of developments which took place during these various periods or eras designated by Scientist, we do not however view their assumptions as to when or how long these periods lasted (i.e. 65 million years, 245 million years or what have you) as actual proven facts, but merely as speculative in nature. We prefer to accept the divine testimony that these periods are of a far more recent time.

Evening and morning–Day Four of seven thousand years, or 28,000 years from the starting of this work (25,128 B.C.) closed, witnessing great progress in the earth’s preparation for man.

Note: as can readily be seen by now WE ARE NOTYoung Earth Creationist”, that is those who adhere to a strict and literal interpretation of the Genesis account, who believe that the earth was created 6000 years ago, that according to their interpretation of Verses 14-19 the earth was created prior to the creation of the sun, moon and stars, and that the creative day’s them self were literal 24-hour days. Most fundamentalist Christians to one degree or another are of this persuasion, the pendulum swinging much too far to right.

 In contrast it is our belief that the earth, the sun and the moon along with all the rest of the universe is many billions of years old, however it is our contention that creation, that is the process in which life was brought to this world is just a little less than 50,000 years old, with each creative “day” consisting not of 24 literal hours per day, but of equal epochs or periods of time consisting of 7000 years in duration each. This we believe allows ample time for the various geological eras to accomplish their work in preparation for the final era in which we live, one which shall shortly see, howbeit with great turmoil the completion of the work begun almost 50,000 years ago resulting in the perfection of the earth.

 Another point which needs to be addressed here, it is stated that the sun, the moon, and stars were appointed not only to divide the day from the night, but likewise that they would be for “signsto mark the seasons, days and years, however one should not jump to any hasty conclusions as is evident from many sources on the internet which I have visited that this signified that there were marked seasonal changes taking place during this time, these seasonal changes would eventually come, but not until after the collapse of the final “ring” or canopy which would bring about the great flood of Noah’s day, until such a time the canopy would insured that the temperature was maintained within a reasonable degree so as not to cause any disturbances in the atmosphere. Remember storms are generally the results of confrontations between fronts, cold fronts and warm fronts, if however the temperature were maintain throughout the globe at roughly the same temperature there would be no catalyst to promote such storms, thus we can see why it was that prior to the flood it had never rained upon the earth Gen 2:5, 6. That is to say it had never rained since mankind’s arrival on earth; it most surely would have rained during the collapse of the various canopies up unto this time, ice and snow in the Polar Regions, rain in the equatorial regions, that is IF the deluge falling from the skies a mixture of water and other various minerals could have been called rain.

 We shall examine the Fifth Day of Creation with our next post.

*the seven division of time

Although science has renamed several of these as well as having divided them into more specific groups nevertheless the basic lists is as follows.

Day 1: the Azoic Age presently referred to as the Archean or Archeozoic era (age without life) the earth formless and void (of life).

Day 2: the Paleozoic Age divided by modern science into six geologic periods (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian)

According to science this age opened with the “Cambrian Explosion,” a period which saw the arrival of some of the earliest forms of sea life, specifically invertebrates (animals having an exoskeleton or external skeleton), trilobites, inarticulate brachiopods, monoplacophoran molluscs, hyolithids, archaeocyathids (sponge-like reef builders) shell-fish and etc..

With the foregoing we are not in disagreement as the scriptures are silent on when exactly the earliest forms of life first appeared. Reason dictates that the earliest forms of life would begin first in the sea with various forms of bacteria such as Cyanobacteria (the first oxygen producers), sponges, seaweed, and algae which would naturally precede the arrival of the higher forms of sea life both invertebrate (the before mentioned) and vertebrates such as fish. Not only was it necessary that the seas first become oxygenated, but likewise that a well-established food chain should be fully established before the arrival of such higher forms of life.

Day 3: the Carboniferous Age. You will note that modern science puts the Devonian age prior to the Carboniferous age; however as Christians we believe that the Word of God supersedes the wisdom of man, and so we will go with the Word of the Lord on this one. Actually putting the Carboniferous age before the Devonian age in no way interferes with what was believed to have transpired during these different periods.

It was during the third day that land first appeared from the waters, and having done so the Lord called the dry land earth, and the waters he called seas. Now take note of the next verse, Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth tender sprout-age, the herb yielding seed after its kind and the tree yielding fruit whose seed is in itself, upon the earth…”

No mention is made of letting the seas bring forth any such plant life, and yet we know that the seas likewise contain plant life, specifically Phytoplankton, algae’s, seaweed, kelp and etc. In fact Phytoplankton, including diatoms and algae, are not only the most numerous plants in the ocean, but also one of the most numerous organisms in the world. Since no mention is made of sea plants we can rightly conclude that such already existed prior to day three.

It is believed that insects first appeared during the carboniferous age that they evolved from a group of crustaceans. Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice and barnacles.

Day 4: the Devonian Age (likewise known as the age of fish). Although the scriptures seem to imply that it was during the next day or period in which the waters were to abound with an abundance of living creatures, this is not necessarily a restrictive statement, the likelihood that the earliest predecessors to the fish we have today cartilaginous fish and bony-fish may have had their beginnings here. It was during this age too that the first amphibians appeared (frogs, toads, salamanders and etc.).

Day 5: the Reptilian Age. Here the oceans saw their most abundance of life, fish and every other sea creature. Reptiles and birds likewise appeared. The statement, “Let the waters bring forth…” like that of Verse 11, “Let the earth bring forth”, abundantly according to their kind does not preclude a measure of evolution in respects to these lower forms of life under divine supervision. “Possibly an evolutionary process by which the lower creation developed up to the point where they reached fixity of class, nature, genera as divinely intended.” (R 5140 par.3 R2836 par.2)

Each kind could evolve as necessary to the environment in which it existed, but in no way could it change its kind from one kind to another kind. A mackerel cannot turn into a shark no more than a palm tree turn into a pine tree, or a sparrow into an eagle, the law of fixity of species prevents this.

This was likewise the age of Dinosaurs, which we will elaborate upon further in our next post when we consider more fully the Fifth Day of Creation.

Day 6: the Age of Mammals also considered as the Cenozoic Era. Early in the Cenozoic, the planet was dominated by relatively small fauna (animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group), including small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. From a geological perspective, it did not take long for mammals and birds to greatly diversify in the absence of the dinosaurs that had dominated during the Mesozoic.

Day 7: the Age of Man also known as the Anthropocene.


Creation, Part 11

Creation, Part 11

According to orthodoxy, most of the coal existing in the world today formed approximately 300 million years ago, from the remains of trees and other vegetation. These remains were trapped on the bottom of swamps, accumulating layer after layer and creating a dense material called peat. As this peat was buried under more and more ground, the high temperatures and pressure transformed it into coal. The three essential elements necessary to the production of coal are, heat, pressure, and time.

“Since we have peat beds today, and they contain carbonaceous matter derived from vegetation, and such matter can be made to produce many of the products that can be made by distillation of coal, it sounds very reasonable that coal could be the solidified remains of ancient peat bogs, but not necessarily just from peat moss, but also from the remains of trees, ferns, and other vegetation as suggested. The evidence seems all but conclusive so much so that the scientists today never even question the accuracy of these findings.”

Since the history of mankind points out that true progress has been made, not by those inclined to think along the lines of the orthodoxy, that is holding to the opinion of the majority, but rather from those views found to be at odds or contrary to the thinking of the many, and that were accepted at the first by only the few (for example the once predominate view that the earth was flat, that it was at the center of the universe the sun, moon and stars revolving around it), perhaps it would be well now for someone to take an iconoclastic view and question the accuracy of this deduction as well. Certainly no harm can result from asking a few questions! A short time ago, a graduate geologist was conducting some sight-seers through the Chicago Museum of Natural History (Field’s Museum). The group was paused before a diorama depicting the forests of the carboniferous age, and the geologist described how such forests accumulated vegetable debris which over immense periods of time became coal. The diorama presented a beautiful scene, with the great trees almost dwarfing the dinosaurs roaming in the forest’s shade. Then one of the group asked a question.

Would not these trees, as tall as they were supposed to be, have very deep, or widespread roots in order for the tree to stand upright?

Why certainly, all trees must be held up by their roots.”

And the soil would have to be fairly deep for the support of such trees?

Of course, why do you ask?

Oh, I just want to know who took the soil out from under the coal beds, after that forest turned to coal.”

The geologist looked startled for a moment. “I see what you mean. I had never thought of it.”

You see that is a very hard question for a geologist to answer, for rarely, if ever, do we find soil under coal, but we do find clay, slate, shale, limestone, sandstone, even *glacial till, all water-laid.

*Glacial till is formed when a glacier carries materials such as boulders, gravel, sand and clay from one area and deposits them in another area. Material carried in the glacier’s base and deposited under it is called basal till, while material carried on or near the glacier’s surface and deposited when the glacier melts is called ablation till.

If the vegetation theory is true, how can we account for “peat bogs” forming on the top of porous gravel and boulder beds, and as such developing the necessary “mass of decaying vegetable matter,” sufficient to make up the coal beds, then removing the soil necessary for the growth of vegetation, and then covering the coal bed with more glacial till? And how do we account for thisluxuriant growthin the midst of a glaciated area, as indicted by the glacial till both under and over the deposit of coal? These are surely legitimate questions and should have a reasonable answer in harmony with natural law! (Note below the size of the Coal Seams found in Antarctica).

Now if coal is from vegetation as so emphatically stated by practically all geologists, where would we expect to find it most abundantly? The logical answer to that question seems to be that coal would be most abundant where vegetation grew most abundantly, and that would be between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the equatorial region, since no glaciation was ever known there except on one occasion. At the present time there is no real winter there except on mountain tops, and along the Congo, the Amazon, and the Orinoco, we have some of the heaviest growths ever known to man, and for thousands of years (if not millions according to orthodoxy) we have a history of uninterrupted growth, and fens and bogs are fed all the yearlong with rich decaying vegetation. Let us see how fast coal is being made here under such favorable conditions. But we look in vain! In all these many thousands of years not one single crystal of coal has been produced! Not even a trace! Why is this? As every Future Farmer of American can tell you, these conditions produce humus not coal, compost, black, cozy, rich fertilizer for the soil. Will it burn? Very probably if the moisture is dried out of it. If used like peat turf, it should have enough fuel in it to produce some heat and enough admixtures to produce lots of ash.

No, strange as it seems, there is very little coal to be found in the tropics, but there are tremendous deposits in Alaska, Siberia, Australia and the Antarctic, and much of the coal mined today was laid down in the ocean or inland lakes, or in connection with glacier movement. There is some coal in India, and it was visited with a glacial period moving up from the equator. The larger beds and the better quality are in the Polar Regions, and rapidly lose in quantity as we move toward the equator until seemingly they play out entirely when we reach the tropics. This seems exactly the opposite of what we should expect if the vegetation theory were correct.

Of course the vegetation theorists employ another one of their commonly held theories known as continental drift to attempt to explain this. The theory goes that at one time Antarctica resided in the midst of the southern super-continent of Gondwana. This continent consisted of Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia-New Guinea and New Zealand, as well as Arabia and the Indian subcontinent, which are in the Northern Hemisphere. Gondwana is thought to have formed roughly 510 million years ago.

“During the late Paleozoic, Gondwana extended from a point at or near the South Pole to near the equator. Across much of the super-continent, the climate was mild, which contributed to the formation of the late Paleozoic Gondwana sedimentary sequence that is the source of much of the mined coal.

Now if as suggested at one time the present day continents were actually situated where they are depicted in the above diagram, one would suppose that there would be found large coal deposits both in North America and in the northern half of South America as well as North and Central Africa. Antarctica and Australia unfortunately would not fare as well, and yet accept for North America as is depicted in diagram above everything appears to be in reversed. Australia located outside the tropics is the fourth leading coal producer in the world while Africa, not North or Central, but rather South Africa ranks as the seventh leading coal producer, what happened in North and Central Africa, where’s the coal?

During the Mesozoic, the world was on average considerably warmer than today. Gondwana was then host to a huge variety of flora and fauna for many millions of years. But there is strong evidence of glaciation during Carboniferous to Permian time, especially in South Africa.”

 “Antarctica remained connected to South America and Australia until about 35 million years ago and, up to that time, retained a diverse flora. At the end of the Eocene, both Australia and South America pulled away northwards allowing the South Circumpolar Current to develop – an ocean current that maintains a continuously flowing pool of cold water around Antarctica. Once this cold-water current was established, it trapped Antarctica in a frigid grip. Ice caps began to develop on the highlands then rapidly linked up to form an extensive ice sheet. The ice has advanced and retreated many times with changes in the global climate and hardy plants such as the southern beech trees (Nothofagus) managed to linger on in isolated Antarctic refugia until as recently as five million years ago. However, intensified global cooling since that time has eliminated all woody plants and the ice sheet is now four kilometers thick at its center.” (See “Fossil forests in the freezer”)

The Continental drift theory like the vegetation theory has its own problems, for more on this please see, “Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat” by David Pratt

Those who so glibly assert that coal is of vegetable origin have apparently ignored the fact that the coal, even if it reached the coal beds as a deposit of decaying vegetation, had to have a previous origin, and that origin must provide that carbon as fuel carbon, so the question becomes “did nature go to all the trouble of routing the carbon through vegetation or did it deposit it as a crystallized carbon without processing it through vegetation?”

We will not take longer to indicate that there are very strong reasons for believing that the current conception of the process of coal formation is in reality, a misconception, and certainly subject to grave questioning. Whatever the process was, the conditions we find must be entirely harmonious with the events. Our trouble has been that the deductions made from the facts, were not in harmony with all the facts, and although apparently explaining some, for some facts may point strongly to the orthodox conception, there are other facts that as strongly contradict it.

Now we turn to the ring and canopy theory which has been able to assign clear and logical causes to some of earth’s “mysteries” to see if it can shed any light on this perplexing problem. Again, let us start with the carbon atom and see what pure philosophy would require. We found that very probably carbon was formed from nitrogen during the process of fission and fusion which must have attended the early period of the formation of earth’s materials. We find that carbon is one of the common elements in earth’s crust (the 15th most abundant element), and is included in some form in the deposits of every age, although in bulk it comprises a very small percent of the deposited material, being grouped in with all others that make up 1%. However, in keeping with the law of arrangement of materials according to weight, we would expect the heavier, denser carbons to be deposited first and the lightest carbon last. We would expect the greater deposits in every age to be toward the Polar Regions, and that such deposits would indicate that they were water-laid.

As the collapse of the canopies brought down earth materials on both sea and land, that which was dropped on water would be separated according to specific gravity, and the heavier carbon crystals would sink before the lighter ones, and the lighter ones would move with the currents and the tides further than the heavier ones, but finally come to rest, water-laid. The heavier carbon crystals sinking faster than particles of clay or other material would have less extraneous matter deposited with them than the lighter carbons. Being laid in water, they might well take down with them small organisms or floating vegetation. Thus, on the Eastern Seaboard we should find the denser coal with less ash content (anthracite) farther east, and the lighter coal, with more ash content (bituminous) further inland, and these beds should diminish in both thickness and quality from their eastern to their western limits. This area was the continental shelf, and under the waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the carboniferous period, and carbon falling into the sea would have been carried by tidal action toward the shores. Note the coal measures still under the sea around the south of the British Isles. East of the Appalachian Range the coal should have been laid down with marine (salt water) fossils, but nearer to the land we would expect refuse from the land vegetation washed down to the sea, and saturated with water, it should have sank to the bottom where the carbon was. Somewhere we would expect in view of the glacial period following the rupturing of a canopy, to find *loess mixed with the carbon, like mud. This condition should be found in the great central basin with its fairly quiet waters (The North American Inland Sea) rather than in the restless churning waters of the ocean (And so it has as noted in the diagrams below.) Along the east side of the Rocky Mountains we would expect to find some anthracite and west of that bituminous. But whatever anthracite is found, it would not be beyond our expectations to find it where bituminous coal predominates. Since even on the interior of the continents, coal was water-laid during periods of glacial movement, we would expect this period to be of violence and mountain making. These processes involve not only North America, but the whole earth at the same time.

Note: The great central basin is in actually comprised of six individual basins.

*Loess is a sedimentary deposit composed largely of silt-size grains that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate.

Let us visualize a canopy formed overhead, with no blue sky appearing. The underside of the canopy is beyond 20,000 miles above us, and with sunlight filtering through; it reveals many shades of grey as well as colors of brighter hues. This liquid mass forming in the carboniferous age must contain carbon as the base for the coal beds, and it must also have bitumen, and other materials that are attracted to carbon. Otherwise the coal would not have formed but would have been graphite. Coal contains many elements besides carbon. The carbon might be present in various forms beside black crystals, as gas in carbon dioxide probably in water solution, as a white substance in combination with calcium, eventually to become limestone, and other possible combinations. Along with the carbon we would expect to find other earth materials such as silica, sodium, alumina, and of course ample water. As the canopy moves poleward, some of the heavier spots may leave the rest and plunge eastward, but the greater mass awaits the breaking at the equator, and then over a matter of days all of that canopy comes to earth, the liquid parts in polar regions as ice and snow mixed with earth material, in the equatorial regions as rain mixed with other matter. Do you see now why the larger beds of coal are toward the poles? How coal can be water-laid between layers of glacial drift? Why coal seams are intercalated by deposits of water-laid rock? Why on the Atlantic Seaboard we would expect anthracite deposits farther east, and the lighter bituminous farther inland, where the seashore or bays once were?

As we had stated before the three primary elements necessary to the production of coal according to the vegetation theory are, heat, pressure, and time, Time being the essential element.

“Since the beginning of man’s history, he has always acknowledged some divinity greater than himself. In man’s original conception this divinity was an all-wise, all-powerful creative being. Later, man divided up his conceptions of the attributes of divinity into polytheism, endowing each of his gods with certain powers, prerogatives, and duties. Among the Greeks and Romans there was a rather inferior god who was seldom mentioned, but to whom was assigned certain important duties. To the Greeks, he was Chronos, to the Romans, Tempus.

When the scientists of the present age rejected the thought of an intelligent creator-god, they bowed down before the altar of Chronos, for here was a god, while not intelligent, was at least mathematical, and since he was the personification of Time, here was a god who could supply all the time necessary to accomplish the seemingly impossible. Having at his disposal infinite time, Chronos could produce beds of material out of older material in which the newly deposited material had never existed. How? Time! Chronos could take primeval carbon and carrying it through the hydro-carbons of plant life, could convert it into fuel carbon in our coal beds. (That is He could in the Polar Regions, even if He failed to do it in the tropics.) How? Why, Time!

There is one thing about the Ring and Canopy theory as regards time that seems to be in its favor? It is not predicated upon any length of time. While naturally it rejects the theory of Bishop Usher (and the thought of literal 24-hour days of creation), it can also reject just as strongly the sacred cows of the cult of Chronos (who ascribe hundreds of millions of years to creation, note we refer not to the creation of the earth itself, but to the preparation of the earth for the arrival of man). The older concepts of evolution and vegetable coal among others saw the inherent weaknesses and their great need for this old-new god with vast periods of time in order to permit Time to perform miracles without being miraculous. But the Ring and Canopy theory requires only such time as will permit the operations of natural law. Since either a short or a long period of time will fit in the frame work of this theory, depending on facts, we can take a very natural view of the controversy, and make our inquiry only with a desire to ascertain the real facts, and not to fit the various guesses offered as theories.

Did you ever stop to think that Time as such is non-existent except here on earth? (Amongst finite beings) We measure time by the events of the earth, its rotation on its axis, the phases of the moon, the swing of the earth around the sun, and the gradual movement of the sun through the various signs of the zodiac at the time of the spring equinox, all of these very short periods of eternity. As we move out into space such time ceases, and we are literally in a timeless universe.

For a more in debt examination of the much of what we have presented, please see “Rings and Canopies, Biblical Geology and the Vailian Theory” By F. L. Parsons

We shall examine the forth “day” or epoch in our next post.


Creation, Part 10

Creation, Part 10

THE THIRD DAY (The Year of the World 32,128 B.C.)

And God said: Let the waters under the heavens be collected unto one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth [soil — surface of the ground] and the reservoir of the waters called he Seas, and God saw that it was good. And God said: Let the earth bring forth tender sprout-age, the herb yielding seed after its kind and the tree yielding fruit whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so … and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the Third Day.” (Gen 1: 9-13)

Geology fully corroborates this record. It points out to us that, as the earth’s crust cooled, the weight of the waters would tend to make it kink and buckle–some parts being depressed became the depths of the seas, other portions forced up constituted mountain ranges–not suddenly, but gradually, one range following another. We are not to suppose that all these changes took place even in the seven thousand years of this third epoch-day; but, rather, that it merely witnessed the beginning of the work necessary as preparatory to the beginning of vegetation; for evidently geology is correct in claiming that some great changes of this nature are of comparatively recent date.

Even within a century we have had small examples of this power: and we shall not be surprised if in the future we shall witness further paroxysms of nature; for we are in another transition period–the opening of the millennial age, for which changed conditions are requisite. (Climate change being one of those requisites changes in preparation for the new age).

In the first photo above we have an example of land emerging from the sea as an underwater volcano erupts; magma from within the mantle pushes up the earth’s crust resulting in the formation of an undersea volcano. Over time the volcano emerges from beneath the sea, and an island is born (second picture below).

The photo below taken off Papua New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean is of a nearly 3.5 mile oval-shaped, reef-fringed island known as Baluan. The island emerged from the sea as a stratovolcano or “composite volcano” of Pleistocene age, rising to a height of 833 feet above sea level at the rim of the half mile wide Saboma Crater (the egg shaped depression at the center of the island). The thickly wooded slopes are generally smooth, but are broken on the northeast by a pyroclastic cone known as Batapona Mountain (492 feet). Warm springs occurring at various coastal locations are the only signs of geothermal activity at the present time.

As the waters drained off into the seas, vegetation sprang forth–each after its own class or kind, with seed in itself to reproduce its own kind only. This matter is so fixed by the laws of the Creator that although horticulture can and does do much to give variety in perfection, yet it cannot change the kind. The different families of vegetables will no more unite and blend than will the various animal families. This shows a design-not merely of a Creator, but an intelligent one.

The account does not say that God made so many different kinds of vegetation, but that under divine command the earth brought forth these various kinds, nothing in the account would interfere with an evolutionary theory as respects vegetation.

Geology agrees that vegetation preceded the higher forms of animal life. It agrees, too, that in this early period vegetation was extremely rank–that mosses and ferns and vines grew immensely larger and more rapidly then than now, because the atmosphere was extremely full of carbonic and nitrogenous gases–so full of them that breathing animals could not then have flourished. Plants, which now grow only a few inches or a few feet high even at the equator, may then have attained a growth of forty to eighty feet, and sometimes two or three feet in diameter, as is demonstrated by fossil remains. Under the conditions known to have then obtained, their growth would not only be immense, but must also have been very rapid. (Fossilized trees lacked growth rings signifying that the climate was stable and unchanging.)

The fact that plants were able to survive at this time gives evidence that although there was yet no direct sun light as of yet, the canopy still obstructing a direct view of the heavens, nevertheless enough light filtered through to produce photosynthesis necessary to the growth of vegetation.

Note the diffusion of light which has filtered its way through the immense canopy of clouds surrounding Venus. In the first photo above a filter was probably employed thus the yellow tint, the second photo below however is a better approximation of conditions.

Whereas on earth the highest cloud tops can reach up to 7.5 miles on Venus the cloud ceiling reaches up to 43.5 miles above the surface. The first 20-25 miles of the atmosphere is relatively clear and consists mostly of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid haze above that the cloud mass thickens extending another 15-20 miles, choking off direct sun light .

At this period, geologists claim, our coal beds were formed: plants and mosses, having a great affinity for carbonic acid gas, stored up within themselves the carbon, forming coal, preparing thus our present coal deposits while purifying the atmosphere for the animal life of the later epoch-days. These vast peat bogs and moss-beds, in turn, were covered over by sand, clay, etc., washed over them by further upheavals and depressions of the earth’s surface, by tidal waves and by other descending “rings” of the waters above the firmament. Practically the same procedure must have been oft repeated, too; for we find coal-beds one above another with various strata of clay, sand, limestone, etc., between.

As plants thrived in the tropical climate they began to produce lignin, a bark-like substance that gave them the structural support needed to grow to gigantic proportions. Yet lignin posed a perplexing problem for the environment. Because it was a new substance and a very tough one at that, there were no microbes that could consume it. The normal mechanisms of decay were thrown out of sorts. As trees died or were toppled in storms, their trunks and branches collected on the forest floor, the pile becoming deeper and deeper as millions of years rolled by (?) with no method for breaking down the lignin. Buried by time and compressed by tectonic forces, these layers would become the vast coal deposits that would later bring about the industrial revolution and our modern age; thus the period acquired its name, carboniferous, meaning “coal bearing”.

Oxygen reached its highest level of any age: 35% compared to modern day measurements of 21%, while in contrast Carbon Dioxide was the lowest in history (until modern times). The vast amounts of vegetation pulled CO2 from the air and it remain locked in their stalks and stems even upon death. The microbes crucial in the process of decay were overwhelmed, the plants did not decompose and huge amounts of CO2 remained trapped within the plant matter. As the plants were turned into coal, the CO2 would remain buried for ages until released in our modern age by the burning of coal.” (The Carboniferous Period”, J.E. Morris July 2010)

“Plants in this early period thrived under ever-increasing levels of carbon dioxide (plants require CO2 for photosynthesis). As plants spread upon the landscape they produced oxygen as a byproduct of their metabolic processes. Throughout the Silurian the oxygen levels continued to increase, causing problems for plants which suffer when oxygen levels are high. By the Middle Silurian, the CO2 levels began to fall and the plants began to endure stresses which forced them to either adapt (possibly shrink in size, growth) or perish.”  (“The Silurian Period”, J.E. Morris July 2010)

Evening and morning, the third 7,000-year epoch-day (21,000 years into creation), accomplished its part in preparing the world, according to the divine design.

Here we must diverge from the common or orthodox view as respects the carboniferous era and the production of coal. As stated orthodoxy holds that the great coal fields found throughout the world are the product of vegetation, and that this process (which supposedly took millions of years to accomplish) took place roughly 300 million years ago, this of course would put it at variance with the Word of the Lord, which (in conjunction with the 7000 year days, based on the true bible chronology) implies that the creation of vegetation is of a much more recent era, not something which took place 450-700 million years ago as our evolutionary friends would have us believe, but rather 30,000 years ago.

It is our belief that the production of coal had little to do with vegetation, and is likewise of a much more recent occurrence. We hold that all the necessary elements prerequisite to the production of coal (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and Sulfur), were all to be found in sufficient quantities in the canopy which encircled the early earth and that these were deposited as a result of the breaking down of various layers of this canopy over time.

In our next post we will elaborate a bit further on this issue.