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Creation, Part 12

Creation, Part 12

A recap to bring us up to speed:

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” We are told that the qualifying “the” does not appear in the Hebrew, and that hence a more accurate translation would be “a beginning.”

Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” At first the earth was a mass or molten ball of energy, and as an earth it was as yet, unformed, and as far as life was concerned, empty-void. Then we saw that the water and gaseous matters were thrown away from the center core by the great heat generated from this newly forming world, forming a great cloud, or deep, around that core. Since there would be too much earthly material in this deep for the sun’s rays to penetrate to the surface of the core, it would have been true that “darkness was upon the [inside] face of the deep,” even though the sun shown upon the outside, even as it now does upon the planets which still have their canopies.

By this time the waters upon the earth, a boiling steaming mass would have completely cover the surface of the earth at a depth that would have conceal any light generated from under sea volcanoes and or rifts in the earth’s crust.

And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the water.” Whatever may be the theological view of this matter, you will note that the outer surface of the canopy and the rings, largely composed of water, would have been in the bright sunshine, while great masses of earth material was suspended for a time because of the heat rather than rotation, in the space between the core and the lowest canopy, a space roughly 22,000 miles in depth.. Here the word “spirit” is used in the sense of power, and the sun’s rays have had a powerful effect on the events that were to prepare earth for a habitation.

You will note that in this picture we have not shown any rings about the planet, the reason is because there is much debate as to whether or not the earth ever had any such rings, although we believe that it was possible, there are still many variables to consider, first and foremost would be how far within the Roche limit any rings developed.

The Roche limit or radius, is the distance within which a celestial body, held together only by its own gravity, will disintegrate due to a second celestial body’s tidal forces exceeding the first body’s gravitational self-attraction. Inside the Roche limit, orbiting material disperses and forms rings whereas outside the limit material tends to coalesce. (The belief is that after Theia’s collision with the earth most of the material ejected from the impact was forced outside the Roche limit thus eventually coalescing into our moon).

Now as to those “rings” which were supposedly circling above the canopy these would have been the results of the expansion of earthly materials when the earth was at white heat, these materials having been reduced to a gaseous state would have expanded and rose high into the atmosphere, the effect then upon a mass of vapors revolving around the earth would be to throw the outer vapors into rings above the equator.

Although it is true that most currently known transiting extrasolar planets are too close to their parent stars to support icy rings it is nevertheless believed that a significant fraction of them could harbor ring particles made of rock or silicates. Silicates constitute the majority of Earth’s crust, precisely what was turned to a gaseous state and revolving around the earth at the time.

But what could have caused these rings to descend upon the earth? Does not natural law say that a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force? So what force could have caused the decline of these rings? There are several.

Orbital decay can be caused by a multitude of mechanical, gravitational, and electromagnetic effects. For bodies in a low Earth orbit, the most significant effect is the atmospheric drag.” (Atmospheric drag, is the lowest altitude above the Earth at which an object in a circular orbit can complete at least one full revolution without propulsion, this is estimated at 150 km or 90 miles above the surface).

“An orbit can also decay by tidal effects when the orbiting body is large enough to raise a significant tidal bulge on the body it is orbiting and is either in a retrograde orbit (reverse orbit) or is below the synchronous orbit (geosynchronous orbit or GEO). The resulting tidal interaction saps momentum from the orbiting body and transfers it to the primary’s rotation, lowering the orbit’s altitude until frictional effects come into play.” (Orbital decay: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_decay)

Tidal forces between the earth and the moon could likewise have had an effect, remember the moon was once much closer to the earth than it is now, but as it slowly moved away the tidal forces of the earth would far outweigh those of the moon and thus emit a far greater effect upon the rings, possibly destabilizing their orbit leading to orbital decay.

And then there is the, Poynting-Robertson drag. This is not as much a concern to the gas giants and their ring systems which reside far from the sun, but it is expected to be significant factor on any ring system revolving around an extrasolar planet. Poynting-Robertson drag has the effect of causing the orbit of a ring particle to decay.

“Orbital debris will be acted upon by radiation forces (photon thrust) as well as by gravitation. Solar radiation pressure and the Poynting–Robertson effect are the best known of all the radiation forces. Poynting–Robertson is a V/c effect (where V is the speed and c is the speed of light); it causes orbit decay for dust or ice particles orbiting a luminous body.

The Poynting–Robertson effect is most commonly applied to small particles orbiting the Sun, but it also applies to particles orbiting planets as well as moons, comets, and asteroids, since these all reflect visible light and emit in the infrared.”

As stated there are many variables to be considered, and since none of us were there we can only speculate.

And on the first day, the Lord said,

Let there be light,’ and there was light.” The first falls of material were the heavy massive deposits of the Azoic Age, and with these materials out of the atmosphere, the light could penetrate through the canopies which had formed far out from the core, and of course the rings (?) shadowed only the equatorial regions.

And God called the light day,’ and the darkness He called night,’ and there was evening and there was morning, one day.” In this text, the first use of the word “day” appears, and since Bishop Usher insisted that all “days” mentioned in Genesis were 24-hour days, we note that in its first use, only the light of a period is described asday,” and thedarkis not included. So we go to the Hebrew to see just what Moses intended in translating this passage. We find that both of the words “day” in the above passage are from the Hebrew “yom” or “yome.” This word is translated into English as “age, ever, everlasting, always, continually, evermore, life, as long as, perpetually, day, season, year, space, process of time,” etc. (See Strong’s Concordance or Scott and Liddel’s Lexicon.)

In other words, it refers to any period of time, the length of that period to be determined from the context, or simply as anindefinite period.” We use the word day in English much the same way. A “day” of work may be six, eight or ten hours. The “day” (daylight) varies in length with the latitude. Every “calendar day” is on earth 48 hours. Hitler’s “day” was not as long as Victoria’s “day.”

Now why in the text above does it mentioneveningfirst?

Because as was stated in the second verse there was darkness to begin with (“…and darkness was upon the face of the deep”), and with the fall of the Azoic material during that first “yom,” it became lighter and that period was termed morning. The Jews to this day commence their yom of 24 hours as at sunset, so that evening comes first and the morning as the second half, perhaps an unwitting, but nevertheless, a constant commemoration of the ring and canopy system.

This first yom makes no mention of life, and there was none in the Azoic Age, and even in the next yom, the Paleozoic Age, life was so unimportant, that it is not mentioned in the Genesis account (This however does not imply that there was none). Of this second yom the write stated, “Let there be a firmament [an expanse or separation] in the midst of the water.” That is, “Let there be a space with atmosphere between the waters.”

And let it [the atmosphere] divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament and divided the waters that were under the firmament [the waters already on the surface of the earth] from the waters which are above the firmament [in the canopies and rings], and it was so.” And we will agree that it was so. Surely by the close of the Paleozoic Age all the atmosphere was cleared of water and earth material and the residue was held in the rings and canopies, creating a vast space of separation. “And there was evening and there was morning, a second yome.” Again, we see that with the additional falls of earth material in the Paleozoic Age that the light would be less in the beginning of the age than in the close, especially in view of the fact that that age closed with a heavy downfall of ice, and a glaciated period, which indicates the rupture and fall of one of the heavier canopies.

From the ninth to the thirteenth verse is sketched the work of the Carboniferous Age, during which insects appeared on land, and the trilobites in the seas. The Genesis account assigns the formation of the continents to the third yom, or period, and certainly they must have been formed before life of any kind could be established there. We do not know just where the writer of Genesis begins or ends his “yoms,” and even our modern geologists are rather vague about the exact endings, for from another view it was one continual operation. So it seems sufficient to note that in general the Genesis account agrees with *the seven division of time, and the work of each yom coincides closely with the accomplishments of each Age. We note that the grasses and herbs “yielded their seed,” so at least one full season would be required, and not a single 24-hour day, nor is there anything to preclude that this “indefinite period of time” was thousands of years. The choice of the word “yom” seems to be very appropriate; it is still an indefinite period of time. We also note that the law of fixity of species is mentioned with the first mention of life, and nothing has ever been found to disprove that statement.

And so we reach THE FORTH DAY (The Year of the World 25,128 B.C.)

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years: and let them be for lights in the expanse to give light upon the earth; and it was so. God made [or caused to shine–a different verb not meaning created] two great lights; the greater light for the rule of the day [to indicate the time of day] and the lesser light, the night; the stars also. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth … and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the Fourth Day.” (Gen 1:14–19)

Note: The “firmament” or “heavens” referred to here could apply equally well to both the first and the second literal heavens. Although we know in fact that the lights we see in the heavens are in truth located beyond our atmosphere (in the second literal heavens, the expanse of space), nevertheless because the atmosphere is transparent from our perspective they appear to be in the atmosphere (the first literal heavens, the expanse of the sky).

The achievements of one epoch-day were carried over into the next, and thus we are justified in supposing that the light of the first day became more and more distinct during the next two, as ring after ring of the enveloping canopy came down from the waters above the firmament to the waters below it, until by the fourth epoch-day the sun and moon and stars could be seen; not so clearly as we now see them on a bright day, no not until after Noah’s flood, when the last of these “rings” would fall would it be that clear; but even yet (by the close of the forth day) they were clearly discernible, even though viewed through a translucent veil of waters (the waters above, Gen 1:7)

The canopy of water would begin to thin first over the equator regions as slowly the gravitational pull of the earth’s magnetic poles began to pull the water further and further north and south in preparation for the final deluge which would later come in the days of Noah (Gen 6:17) thus it is that the sun, moon, and stars would first become visible in these regions, particularly clearer over that region known to be the “cradle of our race

The scene might be similar to what might be seen now on a misty day or night. The Sun, moon and stars had long since been shining on the outer veil of the earth, but now the time had come to allow these lights in the firmament to be seen; to let the days–previously marked by a dull, grayish light, such as we see some rainy mornings when the sun, moon and stars are invisible for clouds–become more distinct, so that the orb of day might by its course mark time for man and beast when created, and during the meantime begin to speed up the oxygenation of the air, thus to prepare it for breathing animals.

Later on during this same 7,000-year day, the moon and stars would also appeared—the moon to influence the tides and to be ready to mark time in the night for man’s convenience, and the stars for “signs and seasons”. (Note: tides are affected by the gravitational pull of both the sun and the moon on the earth, this regardless of whether or not they are visible through any canopy.)

“In the 14th to 19th verses it mentions that the sun and moon became visible, as well as some stars. This indicates that the canopies which formed in the fourth or Devonian Age did not carry as much earth material as previous ones. This we saw was a requirement of natural law, and corroborated by the strata of earth. In this age, sometimes termed the age of fishes, no additional life is mentioned in the Genesis account, but the principal event was the increase light from the sun and the moon. Evidently by this time the moon had receded from the earth a sufficient distance to permit the sun to shine at times, upon the face toward the earth, even as it does now. If there had been any person on earth at that time, he could have seen the reflected light of the sun.

The term “and God made two great lights,” does not imply that they were created at that time, and had not been in existence previously, but that they, their outlines becoming visible through the canopy, “were made, the greater to rule the day, and the lesser to rule the night.” Here the Hebrew word “memshalah” is translated “rule,” in the sense of having power, or dominion. And certainly we know that the sun dominates the daylight, and the moon, the night.

Suppose the writer of Genesis had said that the sun and moon were visible in the first yom or age. We would know at once that he was wrong, but he put the visibility of the sun as in the fourth day.

Why did he take the trouble to point that out? Was he not trying to tell us that [up until this time something was obstructing the sun, moon and stars from view] that the canopies, the waters that were above the firmament, were so dense that during those first three periods that the light could not have come through to earth with sufficient brightness that the direct outline of the sun and moon could have been seen, although light filtered through and was diffused. Now by the time man was upon earth and could write the account which appears in Genesis, he had words for both the sun and the moon. But in the account of the fourth day the writer does not make use of those words, but instead uses a word referring to “bearers of diffused light.” Yet at the time of writing he knew the sun both as a light bearer and as a heater! But the writer did use the term “stars.”

In the illustration above the “rings”, if there were any would have resided within the Roche limit and by this time be experiencing orbital decay one following another over time.

We noted that the rings began their spreading out, or declension, at the equatorial regions to form the canopies, and the collapse of the canopy would probably leave the polar skies clear, until another canopy formed. The sun and moon would not have been visible in equatorial regions as they would be obscured by the rings. Is it not strong proof that the ring and canopy theory is at least the most ancient of concepts, when it is the only theory by which the statements of Genesis can be explained? Some translations of this passage use the expression “He made to shine two great lights.” Either translation is consistent with facts.”

Despite what some naïve Christians believe the Sun, Moon, and Stars were not created on the forth day, they had existed all along, long before that, they were merely obscured by the immense canopy of clouds and gases which enveloped the earth, or as the Lord himself makes reference to in Job 38:9, “Where were you, when I made the clouds its garment, and thick darkness its swaddling band.

The Hebrew word “asah” (as found in Gen 1:16), translated “made” in the King James Version, does not mean “to create,” but here signifies “to appoint” (as in Job 14:5; Psa 104:19). God was merely giving a new appointment or function to the sun, etc., to dominate or “rule” in the heavens, which was lacking in the previous Carboniferous Period.

The increased solar radiation brought about dramatic changes in climate in this period and the process of photosynthesis so basic to the cycle of all life on earth was tremulously increased due to the emergence of the sun once obscured by the canopy. It marked the end of the primary era known as the Paleozoic and opened the secondary or Mesozoic Era, with its sweeping changes in life forms adapting to the new hot and dry conditions.

We are not to suppose that the development of plant life ceased during the fourth day, but rather that it progressed –the increased influence of sun and moon serving to bring forward still other varieties of grass and shrubs and trees. Geology shows advances, too, at this period–insects, snails, crabs, etc. Fish-bones and scales are found in coal seams, too; but this does not disturb the order; for the formation of coal-beds evidently continued even after the third day (howbeit not in the traditional sense, that is not according to the vegetation theory)–thus running into the Reptilian period. This “day” corresponds most closely with what geology designates the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods.

It is important to remember that although we as Christians can agree with the terms of developments which took place during these various periods or eras designated by Scientist, we do not however view their assumptions as to when or how long these periods lasted (i.e. 65 million years, 245 million years or what have you) as actual proven facts, but merely as speculative in nature. We prefer to accept the divine testimony that these periods are of a far more recent time.

Evening and morning–Day Four of seven thousand years, or 28,000 years from the starting of this work (25,128 B.C.) closed, witnessing great progress in the earth’s preparation for man.

Note: as can readily be seen by now WE ARE NOTYoung Earth Creationist”, that is those who adhere to a strict and literal interpretation of the Genesis account, who believe that the earth was created 6000 years ago, that according to their interpretation of Verses 14-19 the earth was created prior to the creation of the sun, moon and stars, and that the creative day’s them self were literal 24-hour days. Most fundamentalist Christians to one degree or another are of this persuasion, the pendulum swinging much too far to right.

 In contrast it is our belief that the earth, the sun and the moon along with all the rest of the universe is many billions of years old, however it is our contention that creation, that is the process in which life was brought to this world is just a little less than 50,000 years old, with each creative “day” consisting not of 24 literal hours per day, but of equal epochs or periods of time consisting of 7000 years in duration each. This we believe allows ample time for the various geological eras to accomplish their work in preparation for the final era in which we live, one which shall shortly see, howbeit with great turmoil the completion of the work begun almost 50,000 years ago resulting in the perfection of the earth.

 Another point which needs to be addressed here, it is stated that the sun, the moon, and stars were appointed not only to divide the day from the night, but likewise that they would be for “signsto mark the seasons, days and years, however one should not jump to any hasty conclusions as is evident from many sources on the internet which I have visited that this signified that there were marked seasonal changes taking place during this time, these seasonal changes would eventually come, but not until after the collapse of the final “ring” or canopy which would bring about the great flood of Noah’s day, until such a time the canopy would insured that the temperature was maintained within a reasonable degree so as not to cause any disturbances in the atmosphere. Remember storms are generally the results of confrontations between fronts, cold fronts and warm fronts, if however the temperature were maintain throughout the globe at roughly the same temperature there would be no catalyst to promote such storms, thus we can see why it was that prior to the flood it had never rained upon the earth Gen 2:5, 6. That is to say it had never rained since mankind’s arrival on earth; it most surely would have rained during the collapse of the various canopies up unto this time, ice and snow in the Polar Regions, rain in the equatorial regions, that is IF the deluge falling from the skies a mixture of water and other various minerals could have been called rain.

 We shall examine the Fifth Day of Creation with our next post.


*the seven division of time

Although science has renamed several of these as well as having divided them into more specific groups nevertheless the basic lists is as follows.

Day 1: the Azoic Age presently referred to as the Archean or Archeozoic era (age without life) the earth formless and void (of life).

Day 2: the Paleozoic Age divided by modern science into six geologic periods (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian)

According to science this age opened with the “Cambrian Explosion,” a period which saw the arrival of some of the earliest forms of sea life, specifically invertebrates (animals having an exoskeleton or external skeleton), trilobites, inarticulate brachiopods, monoplacophoran molluscs, hyolithids, archaeocyathids (sponge-like reef builders) shell-fish and etc..

With the foregoing we are not in disagreement as the scriptures are silent on when exactly the earliest forms of life first appeared. Reason dictates that the earliest forms of life would begin first in the sea with various forms of bacteria such as Cyanobacteria (the first oxygen producers), sponges, seaweed, and algae which would naturally precede the arrival of the higher forms of sea life both invertebrate (the before mentioned) and vertebrates such as fish. Not only was it necessary that the seas first become oxygenated, but likewise that a well-established food chain should be fully established before the arrival of such higher forms of life.

Day 3: the Carboniferous Age. You will note that modern science puts the Devonian age prior to the Carboniferous age; however as Christians we believe that the Word of God supersedes the wisdom of man, and so we will go with the Word of the Lord on this one. Actually putting the Carboniferous age before the Devonian age in no way interferes with what was believed to have transpired during these different periods.

It was during the third day that land first appeared from the waters, and having done so the Lord called the dry land earth, and the waters he called seas. Now take note of the next verse, Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth tender sprout-age, the herb yielding seed after its kind and the tree yielding fruit whose seed is in itself, upon the earth…”

No mention is made of letting the seas bring forth any such plant life, and yet we know that the seas likewise contain plant life, specifically Phytoplankton, algae’s, seaweed, kelp and etc. In fact Phytoplankton, including diatoms and algae, are not only the most numerous plants in the ocean, but also one of the most numerous organisms in the world. Since no mention is made of sea plants we can rightly conclude that such already existed prior to day three.

It is believed that insects first appeared during the carboniferous age that they evolved from a group of crustaceans. Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice and barnacles.

Day 4: the Devonian Age (likewise known as the age of fish). Although the scriptures seem to imply that it was during the next day or period in which the waters were to abound with an abundance of living creatures, this is not necessarily a restrictive statement, the likelihood that the earliest predecessors to the fish we have today cartilaginous fish and bony-fish may have had their beginnings here. It was during this age too that the first amphibians appeared (frogs, toads, salamanders and etc.).

Day 5: the Reptilian Age. Here the oceans saw their most abundance of life, fish and every other sea creature. Reptiles and birds likewise appeared. The statement, “Let the waters bring forth…” like that of Verse 11, “Let the earth bring forth”, abundantly according to their kind does not preclude a measure of evolution in respects to these lower forms of life under divine supervision. “Possibly an evolutionary process by which the lower creation developed up to the point where they reached fixity of class, nature, genera as divinely intended.” (R 5140 par.3 R2836 par.2)

Each kind could evolve as necessary to the environment in which it existed, but in no way could it change its kind from one kind to another kind. A mackerel cannot turn into a shark no more than a palm tree turn into a pine tree, or a sparrow into an eagle, the law of fixity of species prevents this.

This was likewise the age of Dinosaurs, which we will elaborate upon further in our next post when we consider more fully the Fifth Day of Creation.

Day 6: the Age of Mammals also considered as the Cenozoic Era. Early in the Cenozoic, the planet was dominated by relatively small fauna (animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group), including small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. From a geological perspective, it did not take long for mammals and birds to greatly diversify in the absence of the dinosaurs that had dominated during the Mesozoic.

Day 7: the Age of Man also known as the Anthropocene.

 

Creation, Part 11

Creation, Part 11

According to orthodoxy, most of the coal existing in the world today formed approximately 300 million years ago, from the remains of trees and other vegetation. These remains were trapped on the bottom of swamps, accumulating layer after layer and creating a dense material called peat. As this peat was buried under more and more ground, the high temperatures and pressure transformed it into coal. The three essential elements necessary to the production of coal are, heat, pressure, and time.

“Since we have peat beds today, and they contain carbonaceous matter derived from vegetation, and such matter can be made to produce many of the products that can be made by distillation of coal, it sounds very reasonable that coal could be the solidified remains of ancient peat bogs, but not necessarily just from peat moss, but also from the remains of trees, ferns, and other vegetation as suggested. The evidence seems all but conclusive so much so that the scientists today never even question the accuracy of these findings.”

Since the history of mankind points out that true progress has been made, not by those inclined to think along the lines of the orthodoxy, that is holding to the opinion of the majority, but rather from those views found to be at odds or contrary to the thinking of the many, and that were accepted at the first by only the few (for example the once predominate view that the earth was flat, that it was at the center of the universe the sun, moon and stars revolving around it), perhaps it would be well now for someone to take an iconoclastic view and question the accuracy of this deduction as well. Certainly no harm can result from asking a few questions! A short time ago, a graduate geologist was conducting some sight-seers through the Chicago Museum of Natural History (Field’s Museum). The group was paused before a diorama depicting the forests of the carboniferous age, and the geologist described how such forests accumulated vegetable debris which over immense periods of time became coal. The diorama presented a beautiful scene, with the great trees almost dwarfing the dinosaurs roaming in the forest’s shade. Then one of the group asked a question.

Would not these trees, as tall as they were supposed to be, have very deep, or widespread roots in order for the tree to stand upright?

Why certainly, all trees must be held up by their roots.”

And the soil would have to be fairly deep for the support of such trees?

Of course, why do you ask?

Oh, I just want to know who took the soil out from under the coal beds, after that forest turned to coal.”

The geologist looked startled for a moment. “I see what you mean. I had never thought of it.”

You see that is a very hard question for a geologist to answer, for rarely, if ever, do we find soil under coal, but we do find clay, slate, shale, limestone, sandstone, even *glacial till, all water-laid.

*Glacial till is formed when a glacier carries materials such as boulders, gravel, sand and clay from one area and deposits them in another area. Material carried in the glacier’s base and deposited under it is called basal till, while material carried on or near the glacier’s surface and deposited when the glacier melts is called ablation till.

If the vegetation theory is true, how can we account for “peat bogs” forming on the top of porous gravel and boulder beds, and as such developing the necessary “mass of decaying vegetable matter,” sufficient to make up the coal beds, then removing the soil necessary for the growth of vegetation, and then covering the coal bed with more glacial till? And how do we account for thisluxuriant growthin the midst of a glaciated area, as indicted by the glacial till both under and over the deposit of coal? These are surely legitimate questions and should have a reasonable answer in harmony with natural law! (Note below the size of the Coal Seams found in Antarctica).

Now if coal is from vegetation as so emphatically stated by practically all geologists, where would we expect to find it most abundantly? The logical answer to that question seems to be that coal would be most abundant where vegetation grew most abundantly, and that would be between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the equatorial region, since no glaciation was ever known there except on one occasion. At the present time there is no real winter there except on mountain tops, and along the Congo, the Amazon, and the Orinoco, we have some of the heaviest growths ever known to man, and for thousands of years (if not millions according to orthodoxy) we have a history of uninterrupted growth, and fens and bogs are fed all the yearlong with rich decaying vegetation. Let us see how fast coal is being made here under such favorable conditions. But we look in vain! In all these many thousands of years not one single crystal of coal has been produced! Not even a trace! Why is this? As every Future Farmer of American can tell you, these conditions produce humus not coal, compost, black, cozy, rich fertilizer for the soil. Will it burn? Very probably if the moisture is dried out of it. If used like peat turf, it should have enough fuel in it to produce some heat and enough admixtures to produce lots of ash.

No, strange as it seems, there is very little coal to be found in the tropics, but there are tremendous deposits in Alaska, Siberia, Australia and the Antarctic, and much of the coal mined today was laid down in the ocean or inland lakes, or in connection with glacier movement. There is some coal in India, and it was visited with a glacial period moving up from the equator. The larger beds and the better quality are in the Polar Regions, and rapidly lose in quantity as we move toward the equator until seemingly they play out entirely when we reach the tropics. This seems exactly the opposite of what we should expect if the vegetation theory were correct.

Of course the vegetation theorists employ another one of their commonly held theories known as continental drift to attempt to explain this. The theory goes that at one time Antarctica resided in the midst of the southern super-continent of Gondwana. This continent consisted of Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia-New Guinea and New Zealand, as well as Arabia and the Indian subcontinent, which are in the Northern Hemisphere. Gondwana is thought to have formed roughly 510 million years ago.

“During the late Paleozoic, Gondwana extended from a point at or near the South Pole to near the equator. Across much of the super-continent, the climate was mild, which contributed to the formation of the late Paleozoic Gondwana sedimentary sequence that is the source of much of the mined coal.

Now if as suggested at one time the present day continents were actually situated where they are depicted in the above diagram, one would suppose that there would be found large coal deposits both in North America and in the northern half of South America as well as North and Central Africa. Antarctica and Australia unfortunately would not fare as well, and yet accept for North America as is depicted in diagram above everything appears to be in reversed. Australia located outside the tropics is the fourth leading coal producer in the world while Africa, not North or Central, but rather South Africa ranks as the seventh leading coal producer, what happened in North and Central Africa, where’s the coal?

During the Mesozoic, the world was on average considerably warmer than today. Gondwana was then host to a huge variety of flora and fauna for many millions of years. But there is strong evidence of glaciation during Carboniferous to Permian time, especially in South Africa.”

 “Antarctica remained connected to South America and Australia until about 35 million years ago and, up to that time, retained a diverse flora. At the end of the Eocene, both Australia and South America pulled away northwards allowing the South Circumpolar Current to develop – an ocean current that maintains a continuously flowing pool of cold water around Antarctica. Once this cold-water current was established, it trapped Antarctica in a frigid grip. Ice caps began to develop on the highlands then rapidly linked up to form an extensive ice sheet. The ice has advanced and retreated many times with changes in the global climate and hardy plants such as the southern beech trees (Nothofagus) managed to linger on in isolated Antarctic refugia until as recently as five million years ago. However, intensified global cooling since that time has eliminated all woody plants and the ice sheet is now four kilometers thick at its center.” (See “Fossil forests in the freezer”)

The Continental drift theory like the vegetation theory has its own problems, for more on this please see, “Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat” by David Pratt

Those who so glibly assert that coal is of vegetable origin have apparently ignored the fact that the coal, even if it reached the coal beds as a deposit of decaying vegetation, had to have a previous origin, and that origin must provide that carbon as fuel carbon, so the question becomes “did nature go to all the trouble of routing the carbon through vegetation or did it deposit it as a crystallized carbon without processing it through vegetation?”

We will not take longer to indicate that there are very strong reasons for believing that the current conception of the process of coal formation is in reality, a misconception, and certainly subject to grave questioning. Whatever the process was, the conditions we find must be entirely harmonious with the events. Our trouble has been that the deductions made from the facts, were not in harmony with all the facts, and although apparently explaining some, for some facts may point strongly to the orthodox conception, there are other facts that as strongly contradict it.

Now we turn to the ring and canopy theory which has been able to assign clear and logical causes to some of earth’s “mysteries” to see if it can shed any light on this perplexing problem. Again, let us start with the carbon atom and see what pure philosophy would require. We found that very probably carbon was formed from nitrogen during the process of fission and fusion which must have attended the early period of the formation of earth’s materials. We find that carbon is one of the common elements in earth’s crust (the 15th most abundant element), and is included in some form in the deposits of every age, although in bulk it comprises a very small percent of the deposited material, being grouped in with all others that make up 1%. However, in keeping with the law of arrangement of materials according to weight, we would expect the heavier, denser carbons to be deposited first and the lightest carbon last. We would expect the greater deposits in every age to be toward the Polar Regions, and that such deposits would indicate that they were water-laid.

As the collapse of the canopies brought down earth materials on both sea and land, that which was dropped on water would be separated according to specific gravity, and the heavier carbon crystals would sink before the lighter ones, and the lighter ones would move with the currents and the tides further than the heavier ones, but finally come to rest, water-laid. The heavier carbon crystals sinking faster than particles of clay or other material would have less extraneous matter deposited with them than the lighter carbons. Being laid in water, they might well take down with them small organisms or floating vegetation. Thus, on the Eastern Seaboard we should find the denser coal with less ash content (anthracite) farther east, and the lighter coal, with more ash content (bituminous) further inland, and these beds should diminish in both thickness and quality from their eastern to their western limits. This area was the continental shelf, and under the waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the carboniferous period, and carbon falling into the sea would have been carried by tidal action toward the shores. Note the coal measures still under the sea around the south of the British Isles. East of the Appalachian Range the coal should have been laid down with marine (salt water) fossils, but nearer to the land we would expect refuse from the land vegetation washed down to the sea, and saturated with water, it should have sank to the bottom where the carbon was. Somewhere we would expect in view of the glacial period following the rupturing of a canopy, to find *loess mixed with the carbon, like mud. This condition should be found in the great central basin with its fairly quiet waters (The North American Inland Sea) rather than in the restless churning waters of the ocean (And so it has as noted in the diagrams below.) Along the east side of the Rocky Mountains we would expect to find some anthracite and west of that bituminous. But whatever anthracite is found, it would not be beyond our expectations to find it where bituminous coal predominates. Since even on the interior of the continents, coal was water-laid during periods of glacial movement, we would expect this period to be of violence and mountain making. These processes involve not only North America, but the whole earth at the same time.

Note: The great central basin is in actually comprised of six individual basins.

*Loess is a sedimentary deposit composed largely of silt-size grains that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate.

Let us visualize a canopy formed overhead, with no blue sky appearing. The underside of the canopy is beyond 20,000 miles above us, and with sunlight filtering through; it reveals many shades of grey as well as colors of brighter hues. This liquid mass forming in the carboniferous age must contain carbon as the base for the coal beds, and it must also have bitumen, and other materials that are attracted to carbon. Otherwise the coal would not have formed but would have been graphite. Coal contains many elements besides carbon. The carbon might be present in various forms beside black crystals, as gas in carbon dioxide probably in water solution, as a white substance in combination with calcium, eventually to become limestone, and other possible combinations. Along with the carbon we would expect to find other earth materials such as silica, sodium, alumina, and of course ample water. As the canopy moves poleward, some of the heavier spots may leave the rest and plunge eastward, but the greater mass awaits the breaking at the equator, and then over a matter of days all of that canopy comes to earth, the liquid parts in polar regions as ice and snow mixed with earth material, in the equatorial regions as rain mixed with other matter. Do you see now why the larger beds of coal are toward the poles? How coal can be water-laid between layers of glacial drift? Why coal seams are intercalated by deposits of water-laid rock? Why on the Atlantic Seaboard we would expect anthracite deposits farther east, and the lighter bituminous farther inland, where the seashore or bays once were?

As we had stated before the three primary elements necessary to the production of coal according to the vegetation theory are, heat, pressure, and time, Time being the essential element.

“Since the beginning of man’s history, he has always acknowledged some divinity greater than himself. In man’s original conception this divinity was an all-wise, all-powerful creative being. Later, man divided up his conceptions of the attributes of divinity into polytheism, endowing each of his gods with certain powers, prerogatives, and duties. Among the Greeks and Romans there was a rather inferior god who was seldom mentioned, but to whom was assigned certain important duties. To the Greeks, he was Chronos, to the Romans, Tempus.

When the scientists of the present age rejected the thought of an intelligent creator-god, they bowed down before the altar of Chronos, for here was a god, while not intelligent, was at least mathematical, and since he was the personification of Time, here was a god who could supply all the time necessary to accomplish the seemingly impossible. Having at his disposal infinite time, Chronos could produce beds of material out of older material in which the newly deposited material had never existed. How? Time! Chronos could take primeval carbon and carrying it through the hydro-carbons of plant life, could convert it into fuel carbon in our coal beds. (That is He could in the Polar Regions, even if He failed to do it in the tropics.) How? Why, Time!

There is one thing about the Ring and Canopy theory as regards time that seems to be in its favor? It is not predicated upon any length of time. While naturally it rejects the theory of Bishop Usher (and the thought of literal 24-hour days of creation), it can also reject just as strongly the sacred cows of the cult of Chronos (who ascribe hundreds of millions of years to creation, note we refer not to the creation of the earth itself, but to the preparation of the earth for the arrival of man). The older concepts of evolution and vegetable coal among others saw the inherent weaknesses and their great need for this old-new god with vast periods of time in order to permit Time to perform miracles without being miraculous. But the Ring and Canopy theory requires only such time as will permit the operations of natural law. Since either a short or a long period of time will fit in the frame work of this theory, depending on facts, we can take a very natural view of the controversy, and make our inquiry only with a desire to ascertain the real facts, and not to fit the various guesses offered as theories.

Did you ever stop to think that Time as such is non-existent except here on earth? (Amongst finite beings) We measure time by the events of the earth, its rotation on its axis, the phases of the moon, the swing of the earth around the sun, and the gradual movement of the sun through the various signs of the zodiac at the time of the spring equinox, all of these very short periods of eternity. As we move out into space such time ceases, and we are literally in a timeless universe.

For a more in debt examination of the much of what we have presented, please see “Rings and Canopies, Biblical Geology and the Vailian Theory” By F. L. Parsons

We shall examine the forth “day” or epoch in our next post.

 

Creation, Part 10

Creation, Part 10

THE THIRD DAY (The Year of the World 32,128 B.C.)

And God said: Let the waters under the heavens be collected unto one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth [soil — surface of the ground] and the reservoir of the waters called he Seas, and God saw that it was good. And God said: Let the earth bring forth tender sprout-age, the herb yielding seed after its kind and the tree yielding fruit whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so … and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the Third Day.” (Gen 1: 9-13)

Geology fully corroborates this record. It points out to us that, as the earth’s crust cooled, the weight of the waters would tend to make it kink and buckle–some parts being depressed became the depths of the seas, other portions forced up constituted mountain ranges–not suddenly, but gradually, one range following another. We are not to suppose that all these changes took place even in the seven thousand years of this third epoch-day; but, rather, that it merely witnessed the beginning of the work necessary as preparatory to the beginning of vegetation; for evidently geology is correct in claiming that some great changes of this nature are of comparatively recent date.

Even within a century we have had small examples of this power: and we shall not be surprised if in the future we shall witness further paroxysms of nature; for we are in another transition period–the opening of the millennial age, for which changed conditions are requisite. (Climate change being one of those requisites changes in preparation for the new age).

In the first photo above we have an example of land emerging from the sea as an underwater volcano erupts; magma from within the mantle pushes up the earth’s crust resulting in the formation of an undersea volcano. Over time the volcano emerges from beneath the sea, and an island is born (second picture below).

The photo below taken off Papua New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean is of a nearly 3.5 mile oval-shaped, reef-fringed island known as Baluan. The island emerged from the sea as a stratovolcano or “composite volcano” of Pleistocene age, rising to a height of 833 feet above sea level at the rim of the half mile wide Saboma Crater (the egg shaped depression at the center of the island). The thickly wooded slopes are generally smooth, but are broken on the northeast by a pyroclastic cone known as Batapona Mountain (492 feet). Warm springs occurring at various coastal locations are the only signs of geothermal activity at the present time.

As the waters drained off into the seas, vegetation sprang forth–each after its own class or kind, with seed in itself to reproduce its own kind only. This matter is so fixed by the laws of the Creator that although horticulture can and does do much to give variety in perfection, yet it cannot change the kind. The different families of vegetables will no more unite and blend than will the various animal families. This shows a design-not merely of a Creator, but an intelligent one.

The account does not say that God made so many different kinds of vegetation, but that under divine command the earth brought forth these various kinds, nothing in the account would interfere with an evolutionary theory as respects vegetation.

Geology agrees that vegetation preceded the higher forms of animal life. It agrees, too, that in this early period vegetation was extremely rank–that mosses and ferns and vines grew immensely larger and more rapidly then than now, because the atmosphere was extremely full of carbonic and nitrogenous gases–so full of them that breathing animals could not then have flourished. Plants, which now grow only a few inches or a few feet high even at the equator, may then have attained a growth of forty to eighty feet, and sometimes two or three feet in diameter, as is demonstrated by fossil remains. Under the conditions known to have then obtained, their growth would not only be immense, but must also have been very rapid. (Fossilized trees lacked growth rings signifying that the climate was stable and unchanging.)

The fact that plants were able to survive at this time gives evidence that although there was yet no direct sun light as of yet, the canopy still obstructing a direct view of the heavens, nevertheless enough light filtered through to produce photosynthesis necessary to the growth of vegetation.

Note the diffusion of light which has filtered its way through the immense canopy of clouds surrounding Venus. In the first photo above a filter was probably employed thus the yellow tint, the second photo below however is a better approximation of conditions.

Whereas on earth the highest cloud tops can reach up to 7.5 miles on Venus the cloud ceiling reaches up to 43.5 miles above the surface. The first 20-25 miles of the atmosphere is relatively clear and consists mostly of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid haze above that the cloud mass thickens extending another 15-20 miles, choking off direct sun light .

At this period, geologists claim, our coal beds were formed: plants and mosses, having a great affinity for carbonic acid gas, stored up within themselves the carbon, forming coal, preparing thus our present coal deposits while purifying the atmosphere for the animal life of the later epoch-days. These vast peat bogs and moss-beds, in turn, were covered over by sand, clay, etc., washed over them by further upheavals and depressions of the earth’s surface, by tidal waves and by other descending “rings” of the waters above the firmament. Practically the same procedure must have been oft repeated, too; for we find coal-beds one above another with various strata of clay, sand, limestone, etc., between.

As plants thrived in the tropical climate they began to produce lignin, a bark-like substance that gave them the structural support needed to grow to gigantic proportions. Yet lignin posed a perplexing problem for the environment. Because it was a new substance and a very tough one at that, there were no microbes that could consume it. The normal mechanisms of decay were thrown out of sorts. As trees died or were toppled in storms, their trunks and branches collected on the forest floor, the pile becoming deeper and deeper as millions of years rolled by (?) with no method for breaking down the lignin. Buried by time and compressed by tectonic forces, these layers would become the vast coal deposits that would later bring about the industrial revolution and our modern age; thus the period acquired its name, carboniferous, meaning “coal bearing”.

Oxygen reached its highest level of any age: 35% compared to modern day measurements of 21%, while in contrast Carbon Dioxide was the lowest in history (until modern times). The vast amounts of vegetation pulled CO2 from the air and it remain locked in their stalks and stems even upon death. The microbes crucial in the process of decay were overwhelmed, the plants did not decompose and huge amounts of CO2 remained trapped within the plant matter. As the plants were turned into coal, the CO2 would remain buried for ages until released in our modern age by the burning of coal.” (The Carboniferous Period”, J.E. Morris July 2010)

“Plants in this early period thrived under ever-increasing levels of carbon dioxide (plants require CO2 for photosynthesis). As plants spread upon the landscape they produced oxygen as a byproduct of their metabolic processes. Throughout the Silurian the oxygen levels continued to increase, causing problems for plants which suffer when oxygen levels are high. By the Middle Silurian, the CO2 levels began to fall and the plants began to endure stresses which forced them to either adapt (possibly shrink in size, growth) or perish.”  (“The Silurian Period”, J.E. Morris July 2010)

Evening and morning, the third 7,000-year epoch-day (21,000 years into creation), accomplished its part in preparing the world, according to the divine design.

Here we must diverge from the common or orthodox view as respects the carboniferous era and the production of coal. As stated orthodoxy holds that the great coal fields found throughout the world are the product of vegetation, and that this process (which supposedly took millions of years to accomplish) took place roughly 300 million years ago, this of course would put it at variance with the Word of the Lord, which (in conjunction with the 7000 year days, based on the true bible chronology) implies that the creation of vegetation is of a much more recent era, not something which took place 450-700 million years ago as our evolutionary friends would have us believe, but rather 30,000 years ago.

It is our belief that the production of coal had little to do with vegetation, and is likewise of a much more recent occurrence. We hold that all the necessary elements prerequisite to the production of coal (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and Sulfur), were all to be found in sufficient quantities in the canopy which encircled the early earth and that these were deposited as a result of the breaking down of various layers of this canopy over time.

In our next post we will elaborate a bit further on this issue.

 

 

Creation, Part 9

Creation, Part 9

THE SECOND DAY (The Year of the World 39,128 B.C.)

Then God said, “Let there be a firmament [atmosphere] in the midst [between] the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament [the ocean] from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.  And God called the firmament *Heaven. So the evening and the morning were THE SECOND DAY.”

In this era or second epoch-day of 7,000 years, God created the firmament, the atmosphere or “expanse,” suggesting something thin or spread out over the earth, like a blanket or tent. (See Isa 40:22) The wisdom and expertise of a Divine Chemist were needed to bring about the critical combination of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen that were required for higher forms of life that were to follow.

Up until this point, there evidently was no clear separation between the vapors above and waters below. The photo above illustrates what it would be like beneath the canopy as God’s spirit hovered upon the face of the waters prior to the first appearance of light. The transition between those waters in a liquid state and those composed of vapor and gas would be near impossible to distinguish in this thick dark atmosphere. This was the “deep”.

Following the first presence of light in this dark and gloomy world, came the creation of the firmament or expanse which acted as a buffer between those waters in a liquid state, vapors and gas, and those comprised of ice, water and gas which circled the earth above the firmament, this new expanse would be distinguish by the first truly visible horizon line.  

It was probably developed in a perfectly natural way, as are most of God’s wonderful works, though nonetheless of his devising, ordering, creating. The fall of one the various “rings” of water and minerals, which enabled light to penetrate through the dense canopy to the earth during the first epoch-day, reaching the still heated earth and its boiling and steaming surface waters, would produce various gases which, rising, would constitute a cushion, or firmament, or atmosphere, all around the earth, and tend to hold up the remaining waters of the “rings” off from the earth.

Another thought is that:

“All the rings formed by the rising vapors surrounding the earth necessarily contained great quantities of water — as well as carbon and other mineral substances. These revolved with greater rapidity near the equator and gradually spread out like an envelope toward the poles until they enveloped the earth as a canopy. As these rings neared the poles their motion was slowed, and both the weight and the slowing velocity caused them to fall. As each one fell, great pools of water or bodies of water were rained down upon the earth. All the mineral substances taken up in solution were brought down at the poles and were rushed on toward the equator.

There would then, of course, be water upon the earth and waters above the earth. David backs up this conclusion in the Bible when he says: “Deep [above] calls unto deep [below] at the noise of your waterfalls; All Your waves and billows have gone over me.” (Psalm 42:7); “You who laid the foundations of the earth, so that it should not be moved forever, you covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains.” (Psalm 104:5, 6; Proverbs 8:27, 28; Job 38:9-11). By the falling of these aqueous rings or canopies the oceans were formed, and these great bodies of water on the earth were separated from the deep above the earth by the firmament. The firmament was not holding up the water — the great deep above the earth was held there by virtue of the fact that it was rapidly revolving in its orbit.” (Hope of Israel Ministries, Ecclesia of YEHOVAH)

This “day,” so far as Scriptures show, would also belong to the Azoic, or lifeless, period; but geology objects to this, claiming that the rocks appropriate to this time show worm-trails and immense quantities of tiny shellfish, the remains of which are evidenced in the great beds of limestone. They denominate this the Paleozoic age of first life—the Silurian period. This is not at variance with the Biblical account, which merely ignores these lowest forms of life.

Evening and morning, Day Two, ended with the full accomplishment of the divine intention respecting it; the separation of the clouds and vapors, etc., from the surface waters by an atmosphere.

At this point in our study we would like to address some supposed scriptural arguments against the Canopy theory.

The following thoughts were written by a creationist in an article entitled “Explaining the Flood without the Canopy”.

Some Scriptural objections to the canopy theory

The writer states, “I will now show that the canopy is not required by Scripture, and is even probably incorrect, according to Scripture.

Probably incorrect”, right here the writer shows his own uncertainty concerning the issue.

*Dr. Russell Humphreys has suggested a cosmology, based on the stretching of space. In this cosmology, Humphreys has suggested that the firmament, which divides the waters above from the waters below, in Genesis 1:6-8, represents the stretching of the universe. The Hebrew word translated firmament is râqîya (רקיע). This word has a similar root to the concept of “stretching” metal, by hammering it. Some versions translate the word as expanse. Humphreys, therefore, uses this concept to explain the various red shift measurements observed in space. However, a side effect of his theory is that the “waters above” would therefore be beyond the stars, rather than at the edge of the atmosphere. This makes sense for a number of reasons.

Does it really? Ask yourself honestly, what practical purpose would there have been for God to have even mentioned the “waters above” if they were something which supposedly existed far beyond the stars, at the very edge of the universe? What does something far off at the edge of the universe have to do with the preparing of the earth for the arrival of man?

The writer continues,

First, we read in Genesis 1 that the Sun, Moon and stars were made in the firmament (Genesis 1:15). If there were a canopy at the edge of the atmosphere, this would mean that the stars were above the canopy, which is not what Scripture says.

Here the author makes his first mistake, Genesis 1:15 in no way implied that the Sun, Moon, and stars were literally made in the firmament, the expanse or atmosphere of the earth.

Let us read the text again for ourselves,

Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years” (New American Standard Bible).

And from Rotherham’s Emphasized Bible, “And God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years

The only translation I found which states made in was the Douay-Rheims Bible.

And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years

However the statement that something is made in the heavens does not necessarily imply that the object was physically made there, but rather that it was made to appear there. It was made visible there.

Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens” Why are these lights made to appear in the heavens, simple, because the atmosphere is composed of air, and air is invisible, transparent. Thus the lights (the Sun, Moon, and stars) were made to appear in the firmament of heaven (the earth’s atmosphere) when in truth they reside in the heavens (the expanse or firmament) above this, in the starry heavens.

As to the second part of the author’s statement, viz. “If there were a canopy at the edge of the atmosphere, this would mean that the stars were above the canopy, which is not what Scripture says.”

The texts may not specifically state that they were, but common sense does.

As we are admonished, “Come let of reason together” that is let us apply the “spirit of a sound mind” and utilizing our god given ability to reason things out for ourselves, let us not fall prey to the foolish babblings of men.

The author continues,

Second, some have pointed to birds flying in the canopy, as pointing to the canopy being at the edge of the atmosphere.

Who are these “some” with whom you mention, certainly not any true canopy theorist? How could the birds fly in the canopy when the canopy is purposed to have been located above the breathable atmosphere? Birds could only survive in the lowest portion of the atmosphere in the troposphere. The canopy containing the “waters above” is suggested to have resided above the troposphere in the upper levels of the atmosphere.

However, if the canopy were at the edge of the universe, this would not contradict this verse (Genesis 1:20). Moreover, the Hebrew version actually talks about the “face of the firmament.” Some versions, such as the NKJV, refer to this: “…let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” So the birds are not actually in the firmament, but flying across the face of it.

More nonsense, obviously the author lacks the “spirit of a sound mind”, “So the birds are not actually in the firmament, but flying across the face of it.” The same mistake made in respects to Gen 1:15, is being repeated here. The “face of the firmament” encompasses the whole of the firmament as seen or taken in by one looking up from the vantage point of the ground. You look up and you behold the face of the sky.  And what do you see, why you see not only birds flying across the face of the sky, but likewise airplanes.

The author continues,

Third, Psalm 148:4 shows that the “waters above” are still actually in place, because this psalm was written after the Flood. That would also suggest that the “waters above” had nothing to do with the Flood, and lends support to Humphreys’ idea that the “waters above” are beyond the last galaxies, not at the edge of the atmosphere.

Here we believe the reference is not in regards to those waters mentioned in Gen 1:7. No here we believe the thought is that all God’s works render him praise, whether they be animate or inanimate, lofty or lowly, each in its own particular way praises the God of it creation, be it the angles, the Sun, the Moon, the stars or even the majesty and splendor of the eternal abode of the Most High, the heaven of heavens.

The waters above likewise praise him in similar fashion, however as stated we believe these waters refer not to physical waters, literal waters, but rather to the waters which reside above the heavens, (above the firmament or atmosphere of earth), the great ocean of space wherein the heavenly hosts (the Stars, the Planets, Moons, and etc.) dwell or we could say float, i.e. the universe itself, another one of God’s creations, one which is continually found praising him both day and night.

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows his handy-work. Day unto day utters speech and night unto night shows knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.” (Psa 19:1-3)

The ancients themselves once thought that there was an ethereal and lofty ocean in which the worlds floated like ships in a sea. –Thomas Le Blanc.

The term “waters above” as used here in Psa 148:4 we believe is used metaphorically or symbolically as representing the great body of water above, space, the universe itself.

It is apparent that a significant part of the problem with respects to this issue has been the failure to distinguish between the various heavens mentioned in the scriptures.

Throughout the scriptures reference is made to the heaven(s). The scriptures speak of different types of “heavens”, those which are LITERAL, and those which are SYMBOLIC.

There are in fact three types of “Literal heavens” made reference to in the scriptures.

The first of these literal heavens mentioned, is that which the Genesis account designates as the “firmament”, (Strong’s # 7549, Hebrew, “raqiya”, raqia, properly, an expanse, i.e. the firmament or (apparently) visible arch of the sky [supposedly that in which the atmosphere would be contained]: — firmament. Gen 1:6

The Lord himself designates this “firmament” as the heaven(s), “And God called the firmament Heaven” (Strong’s # 8064, Hebrew shamayim, the sky aloft, the visible arch in which the clouds move [i.e. the atmosphere], as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve: air, heaven(s) Gen 1: 8 compare with Verse 20

This word “firmament” also stands in regards to the starry “heavens” of the universe, i.e. the expanse of space, wherein the celestial bodies revolve as was alluded to by the foregoing Strong’s number, this we designate as (The second literal heavens) Compare Gen 1:14-18 and Psa 19:1

The third literal heavens mentioned in the scriptures is in reference to the physical heavens, the dwelling place of the Most High, Jehovah God, the place of his throne or (supreme ruler-ship), the abode of all the holy hosts. (See Revelation Chapters 4 and 5, although this is a symbolic picture the implication is clear that this is in regards to the physical heavens where Gods throne dwells).

I have noted that many critics of the canopy theory seem to be under the impression that those who advocate the canopy theory are inferring that the “firmament” is the canopy, however this is not so, the firmament is that portion of the atmosphere or sky containing breathable oxygen, the Troposphere, it is above this expanse or heavens (in the upper atmosphere) where once the canopy laid. It was the “waters which were above the firmament” which constituted the canopy, NOT the firmament itself.

He made darkness his secret place; his canopy around him was dark waters and [the] thick clouds of the skies.” Psa 18:11

The “firmament” or expanse which the Lord created was situated “in the midst of the waters”, that is it extended in such a fashion so as to divide the waters, those under the firmament would naturally be in reference to the waters which covered the earth, liquid waters, in the beginning all the earth’s surface was covered by these waters, later following the emergence of land these waters consisted simply of the various oceans, seas, rivers and etc., those waters above (the firmament) would most likely constituted a vast blanket [or canopy] of water vapor above the troposphere and possibly above the stratosphere as well, in the high-temperature region now known as the ionosphere, some 50 to 250 miles above the earth’s surface and extending far into space.

These particular waters spoken of could not have been in reference to the clouds of water droplets which now float in the atmosphere (the Troposphere, which has a ceiling height of 4 to 11 miles high depending on latitude), an expanse in which nearly all clouds form and weather conditions manifest themselves, in which birds can both breath and fly (Gen 1:20) The Scriptures clearly state these waters were found “ABOVE this firmament”.

Simply points to ponder.

We shall examine the third “day” or epoch in our next post.


* David Russell Humphreys is an American creationist author and a scientist with a PhD in physics. He has proposed a theory for the origin of the universe which he says resolved the distant starlight problem alleged to exist in young Earth creationism.

Creation, Part 8

Creation, Part 8

The First Day (The Year of the World 46,128 B.C.)

The creative days of Genesis were actually epoch days consisting of geologic periods, most logically of equal lengths. It is unnecessary to insist that these days were only 24 hours since the same word for “day” (Hebrew “yom”) is elsewhere used to denote longer periods also termed a “day”: Note Psa 95:8, “the day of temptation in the wilderness” (40 years); Gen 2:4, “in the day that … God made the earth and the heavens” (covering all six epoch days, 42,000 years), Acts 17:31, “He has appointed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness…”(the millennial day, 1000 years).

Having we hope proven from our study of The True Bible Chronology that the seventh day of creation is to last 7000 years until its completion, and knowing the Almighty to be a God of order and purpose it is but reasonable to assume that the previous six creative days were likewise of the same duration. Since we know that Adam was created at the very end of the sixth creative day in 4128 B.C. we simply add 42,000 years to this and we have the date of the first creative day 46,128 B.C.)

 Genesis Verse 3-5

And God said, let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided between the light and the darkness, and God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the First Day.” (the end of the first 7000 year day, bringing us to the year 39,128 B.C.)

The nature and physical cause of light is as yet but imperfectly comprehended–no satisfactory solution of the query, what is light? Has yet appeared we do know, however, that it is a prime essential throughout nature; and we are not surprised to find it first in the divine order when the time came for divine energy to operate upon the waste and empty earth to prepare it for man.

The nature of the divine energy represented by “brooding” would seem to be vitalizing, (empowering) possibly electrical energies and lights such as the aurora borealis, or northern lights. Or, possibly, the energy brought down some of the heavy rings of aqueous and mineral matter, and thus the light and darkness, day and night, became distinguishable, though neither stars nor moon nor sun were in the slightest degree discernible through the heavy canopy (mist) and rings, which still enveloped the earth.

“God’s spirit “hovering” or “brooding” upon the face of the waters is a very intriguing description of his very first act in this epoch. This was Divine Energy radiating outward upon the primitive seas, producing what only Divine Power can accomplish — the appearance of the earliest forms of life. It is gratifying to note that science agrees with this sequence that earliest life stemmed from the oceans! However, these earliest marine creatures were not crude or partially developed, as some would portray them, but were complex wonders in their own right.”

Evening and morning–Day One” As with the Hebrew solar days, so also with these epoch-days, the evening came first, gradually accomplishing the divine purpose to its completion, when another 7,000-year day, apportioned to another work, would begin darkly, and progress to perfection. This period, or “day,” is scientifically described as the Azoic, or lifeless period, also dubbed the inorganic era.

Rotherham suggests the “light” of this day was diffused, in contrast to the more distinguishable light afforded on the Fourth Day. (Opaque Cloud Opacity: This describes thick clouds which do not allow light to pass directly, although light can diffuse through them. Such thick clouds often look gray. At such times it is almost impossible to tell where precisely the Sun is. The sun being concealed from view nevertheless illuminated the Canopy, which diffused its light to Earth’s surf. Although the picture above is most likely thick fog or midst it gives somewhat an idea as to what we are describing.) This is consistent with the * Vailian or Canopy theory, which visualizes the earth as a flaming mass shortly after creation, a glowing waste, which vaporized the waters and other minerals into bands or canopies that encircled the earth.

Likewise alluded to in Job 38:9 where the Lord in reference to the creation of the earth states, Where were you, “when I made the clouds its garment, and thick darkness its swaddling band “ As the various rings or bands cooled, they fell back to earth in layered deposits, allowing the atmosphere to gradually clear.

Note the following definitions as given by Strong’s

6051, “clouds” as covering the sky

3830, “garment” clothed with

6205, “thick darkness” from 6201 to droop; hence, to drip, drop down, gloom as of a lowering sky

2854, “swaddling band” a swathing cloth, figuratively swaddling band

Note the definition of “swaddle” as taken from the New Oxford American Dictionary, to wrap someone (or something) in garments or cloth. Now also the word “swaddling clothesnarrow bands of cloth formerly wrapped around a newborn.

The analogy given here in Job appears to confirm the Canopy Theory, that at one time the earth was covered in darkness by a thick layer of clouds consisting of waters and minerals, which had risen up as gases due to the extreme heat of the earth, and that these encompassed the earth in an impenetrable canopy extending for miles around the earth in every direction. Pictured above is Venus, the earth at one time may have resembled this, shrouded in a garment of clouds as it slowly cooled and its rings one by one fell to the earth.

Note: a distinction should be made between “rings and bands”, i.e. layers of clouds consisting of various gases, minerals and water forming the atmosphere, and “rings” as in those which are found circling several of the gas giants. These outer rings are made up of dust, rock (minerals) and ice. Although it is possible as alluded to in one of our earlier posts that the early earth may have had such rings especially in its infancy when forming its first primordial atmosphere, barring the fact that it was a much hotter world and spinning at a much faster rate days lasting a mere 2-5 hours, nevertheless we would assume that by day one of creation due to its much cooler temperature (still hot, but now able to form a much more solid surface), this and its much slower rotation speed due in part to the size and gravitational friction of its new moon, that if there were any rings circling the planet  they would have long since disappeared most likely having rejoined the clouds circling the earth.


NOTE: Here we would like to amend our previous statement that by the first creative day the earth had lost its rings, further investigation and study now leads us to believe the rings were still there. This will become more evident as we continue our study.


*The author of the Vailian Theory, Isaac Newton Vail, a Quaker, was born in Ohio in 1840, where he taught school, later becoming an oil and gas prospector. In 1874 he published a pamphlet called The Waters above the Firmament”, now although we believe the general premise of his theory appears to be sound and in harmony with the record of creation as it is depicted in the Bible, we nevertheless understand it to be only a “theory”, not all of which we are in agreement with nor agrees with known science. However it does seem rather coincidental that this particular view or “theory” should be published when it was (in A.D. 1874).

Likewise consider the fact that it is clearly stated that the sun and the moon did not appear until the fourth day (Gen 1:14-19), and since logically the sun and the moon had existed prior to this even from the beginning when God first created the heavens and the earth then obviously something obscured these “two great luminaries” from view. 

We shall examine the second “day” or epoch in our next post.

 

Creation, Part 7

Creation, Part 7

In our previous post we had mentioned that as the shrouded world began to cool the various vapors comprised of waters and minerals held in suspension above the earth would begin to condense and as their mass increased would naturally be drawn to the point of least resistance, the two magnetic poles, here the deluge of waters and minerals would rush down one after another until they had completely covered the earth in waters.

During each of these long days, which we contend were of seven thousand years each, a certain work progressed, as told in Genesis; each possibly ending with a deluge, which worked radical changes and prepared the way for still further steps of creation and preparation for man. This Vailian Theory ( or “Annular System” as referred to by its author Prof. L N. Vail) assumes that the last of these “rings” was freest from minerals and all impurities–pure water; that it had not yet broken and come down in the day of Adam’s creation, but that it completely overspread the earth as a translucent veil above the atmosphere (in other words by this time the last of the various rings circling the earth had disappeared, the last spreading out both north and south until it finally eloped the entire earth). Gen 1:7 It served, as does the whitened glass of a hot-house (greenhouse), to equalize the temperature–so that the climate at the poles would be little, if any, different from that at the equator. Under such equable conditions, tropical plants would grow exponentially everywhere, as geology shows that they did; and storms, which result from rapid changes of temperature, must then have been unknown; and for similar reasons there could then have been no rain. The Scriptural account agrees with this; declaring that there was no rain on the earth until the deluge; that vegetation was watered by a mist rising from the earth–a moist, or humid, hot-house-like condition. (Gen 2:5, 6)

Following the deluge in Noah’s day came great changes, accompanied by a great shortening of the span of human life. With the breaking of the watery veil the hot-house condition ceased: the equatorial path of the sun became hotter, while at the poles the change must have been terrific–an almost instantaneous transition from a hot-house temperature to arctic coldness.

Corroborations of this sudden change of temperature have been found in the arctic region: Two complete mastodons were found embedded in clear, solid ice, which evidently froze them in quickly. Tons of elephant tusks have been found in the same frozen Siberia, too inhospitably cold, within the range of history, for elephants, mastodons, etc. An antelope was found similarly embedded in a huge block of ice in that arctic region. That it was suddenly overwhelmed is clearly demonstrated by the fact that grass was found in its stomach undigested, indicating that the animal had eaten it only a few minutes before being frozen to death–and that in a location where no grass could now grow.

This sudden downpour of water–this sudden breaking of the envelope which held the warmth of the earth and sun equably–produced the great ice-fields and ice-mountains of the arctic regions, from which every year hundreds of icebergs break loose and float southward toward the equator. So far as we can judge, this has been the procedure for centuries, but is continually growing less. Here we see the Ice Age, or Glacial Period, of the geologists, when great icebergs, borne by swift currents, cut deep crevasses throughout North America, distinctly traceable in the hills; northwestern Europe, too, bears the same testimony in its hills. But not so southeastern Europe, Armenia and vicinity– the cradle of our race, where also the ark was built, and near which, on Mount Ararat, it finally rested.

The testimony in general would seem to imply that the ark floated in a comparatively quiet eddy, aside from the general rush of the waters. This is indicated by the exceedingly heavy alluvial deposit declared to be present in that entire region. Evidently waters from the North and South Poles deluged the whole earth, while the cradle of the race was specially dealt with by first depressing, and then at the proper time elevating it.

Knowing the end from the beginning, the Lord so timed the introduction of man upon the earth that the last of the rings came down in a deluge just at the proper time to destroy the corrupted race in Noah’s day, and thus to introduce the present dispensation, known in the Scriptures asthis present evil world.”

In this particular instance we note the scriptural account as taken from the Ferrar Fenton Paraphrased Translation.

For this they willfully forget: that by the intention of God the skies (the firmament or atmosphere) existed from of old, and the earth with water above (that is, above the atmosphere) and water below (below the earth, i.e. underground), arranged for the purpose of God, by means of which the then existing world (age or epoch) perished, by the water having rushed down.” (2 Pet 3:5, 6)

The removal of the watery envelope not only gave changing seasons of summer and winter, and opened the way for violent storms, but it also made possible the rainbow, which was first seen after the flood, this because previously the direct rays of the sun could not so penetrate the watery canopy as to give the rainbow effect. Gen 9:12-17

Gen 1:2 continued, “Now the earth was without form and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

Explain what is meant by theface of the deeptheface of the waters?

Possible explanation:

What is meant here by “the deep” and “the face of the waters? Without a doubt there were waters ABOVE the earth and waters UPON the earth. This is obvious from the Genesis statement. The great deep, therefore, must have particular reference to the waters above the earth — waters that could have been held up only by reason of the fact that they were revolving rapidly in an orbit about the earth. As soon as they would become inactive they would necessarily fall to earth. The lighter one of these rings would necessarily be farthest out from the earth and nearest the sun.

The time came when the spirit of YEHOVAH God, that is to say, His power, moved upon or took action upon the face of the waters, and the light penetrated this great deep or canopy that surrounded the earth. What this really means is that YEHOVAH God caused the sun’s rays to shine upon the face of the waters or great deep, ILLUMINATING THEM. YEHOVAH pronounced the light good, and the light YEHOVAH called day and the darkness he called night, and YEHOVAH divided the light from the darkness. That was the beginning of the division of day and night. So far as the Bible discloses, such constituted the work of the first creative day, and concludes with the words: “And the evening and the morning were the first day.” There is NO evidence to warrant the conclusion that at this time the light had penetrated to the earth. (Hope of Israel Ministries, Ecclesia of YEHOVAH)

As illustrated in the diagram above it is important to understand that the “deep” consisted not only of those waters in a liquid state, those found upon the surface of the earth, but likewise those waters found above the earth those in a vaporous or gaseous state, together these waters comprised “the deep”. Now in considering the statement “darkness was upon the face of the water(s),” surely one would not suggest that the sun’s rays i.e. light had never shown upon the outer surface of these waters.

No, in this instance we are to consider “the face of the waters” as taken from God’s perspective beneath the canopy, as his spirit hovered over the deep (over the ocean of liquid waters, yet beneath those which were suspended above them, those in a gaseous state). It is here where no light was visible that the Lord made the statement, “Let there be Light”.

With this general view of creation before our minds, we will with our preceding posts turn to the Genesis account, and endeavor to harmonize these conjectures with its statements.

Creation, Part 6

Creation, Part 6

In our previous post we had hinted at a cataclysmic event which was shortly to take place which we believe would rectify (that is for the time being) the runaway greenhouse effect that was overtaking our newly forming world. Now as stated before some have suggested that the early primordial atmosphere could not have been as thick as we have suggested due to its close proximity to the sun and its solar winds, note the following remarks as taken from “Early Earth’s Magnetic Field Was a Weakling” by Andrea Thompson, http://www.space.com/8006-early-earth-magnetic-field-weakling.html)

“A recent study suggests that “the protective magnetic field shrouding the early Earth was likely only half as strong as it is today.” In truth little is known about the magnetic field as it existed just after the Earth formed, around 4.5 billion years ago. It is the magnetic field which keeps solar particles from eating away at the molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere.

In the past, not only was the earth’s magnetic field weaker, the sun was likely rotating more rapidly and therefore spinning off a stronger solar wind and a magnetopause that was likely much closer to Earth. Today it is at a distance of about 10.7 Earth radii, but then it would likely have been around 5 Earth radii out (Earth’s average radius is about 4,960 miles, or 6,370 km).”

“That means that the particles streaming out of the sun were much more likely to reach Earth. The implication of that situation is that “it’s very likely the solar wind was removing volatile molecules, like hydrogen, from the atmosphere at a much greater rate than we’re losing them today… the loss of hydrogen implies a loss of water as well.

In turn, if a lot of water was stripped away early in Earth’s history, to get the amount of water that we have now (not to mention the amount that completely covered the earth at the beginning of day one of creation), the planet must have startedwith either a fairly robust inventory of water,” and or it was possibly being continuously replenished by further impacts from comets and asteroids, as well as small planetesimals.”

Mars minuscule atmosphere is one example of what happens when a planet lacks a significant magnetic field to protect itself from the sun’s radiation. However as someone said, Observation, the final judge of scientific truth proves some things are not always as expected. As discussed in our previous post Venus which completely lacks a magnetic field, at least none which has been discovered as of yet defies this assumption, and retains its atmosphere.

AS FOR THE MOON

Pictured above is a depiction of a small planetesimal possibly Theia on approach impacting the early earth’s atmosphere.

According to another study, the moon came into existence after several planet-size space bodies (planetesimals) smashed into the nascent Earth one after the other, with the final one actually forming our satellite, while several impacts repeatedly blew off our planet’s atmosphere.

Until now, scientists thought it was unlikely that the early Earth could lose its atmosphere because of a giant moon-forming impact. But the new research, based on recent studies showing that at its infancy our planet had magma oceans and was spinning so rapidly that a day was only two or three hours long, argues that this may have been possible.”

Research conducted by planetary scientist Sarah Stewart, a professor at Harvard University along with several of her fellow colleagues argued that the moon is actually a giant merger of bits and pieces of our own planet, partially destroyed by a catastrophic collision with a space body 4.5 billion years ago.

Back then, the Earth had a two- or three-hour day, she said, and the impact made it throw off enough material to coalesce into what became our satellite, making it the Earth’s geochemical twin. This ultra-rapid spin is one of the important conditions necessary to make the atmospheric loss theory work, Stewart said. The other criterion is the presence of terrestrial magma oceans — and this hypothesis has now got support thanks to new data obtained from volcanoes.

Volcanic Memory

Two of her colleagues, who presented their work at the 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, sampled elements from volcanoes in Iceland, which have rocks that are among the oldest on Earth and thus retain the geo-chemical signatures of the Earth’s so-called lower-most mantle, closest to the planet’s core. They also looked at elements found in volcanoes that sample the upper mantle, such as mid-ocean ridge basalt’s at the bottom of the Atlantic. They found that elements in the deep mantle that retain a very ancient chemistry, from the times of the Earth’s formation, are very different from those in the upper mantle we see today.

In particular, the presence of two noble gases, helium and neon, is very different today from what it used to be, Stewart said. Both these gases are very rare on today’s Earth, but they are found in the solar system in abundance. And as “documented” by the deep Earth, when our planet was just forming it contained much more helium and neon as well.

“The implication is that [the lower-most mantle] hasn’t been completely overprinted by subsequent evolution, and it’s helping us pinpoint events that had to happen to lead to the planet we see today.

So how and why did these gases disappear?

While helium is not gravitationally bound to the Earth, neon is, and it needs a powerful “kick” to escape. “For such a dramatic change to happen you can’t do that with just open loss off the top (as suggested in our first study concerning the early earth’s weak magnetic field) — instead, you need to eject the whole atmosphere in a catastrophic type of event, a giant impact.

Besides atmospheric loss caused by impacts that melt all rock to create magma oceans, to get to the present-day neon-to-helium ratio Earth would have to suffer multiple impacts. In other words, the Earth probably (formed and) lost its primordial atmosphere multiple times, and the magma oceans were melting more than once. The final impact, led to the creation of the moon, and resulted in the ratio of the gases we have today. “One single impact is not sufficient, there had to be at least two, probably more, to make that work.”

No Mixing?

The idea that stages of Earth’s growth are recorded in chemistry is relatively new. Previously, researchers argued that during our planet’s formation (known as accretion) with a moon-forming impact, the proto-Earth was melted and mixed to the point that it “forgot” its growth — all the data was erased. “But now what we’ve learned is that data wasn’t erased, and it’s exciting because now we have clues to the stages of growth,” Stewart said. She added that the next step would be to calculate exactly under what impact conditions the early atmosphere actually might have been blown off.

But if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an impact, how did the Earth get its atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one we have today?

The currently accepted idea for how the moon was formed involves the impact or accretion of a Mars-size object with or by the proto-earth. When two objects of this size collide, large amounts of heat are generated, of which quite a lot is retained. (The amount of heat that can arise through simple accretionary processes, bringing small bodies together to form the proto-earth, is large: on the order of 10,000 kelvins about 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This single episode could have largely melted the outermost several thousand kilometers of the planet…In other words there was no shortage of heat in the early earth, the planet’s inability to cool off quickly would once again result in out-gassing and in the production of another primordial atmosphere similar to the last.”

The Giant Impactor Theory (sometimes called The Ejected Ring Theory): proposes that a planetesimal (or small planet) the size of Mars struck the Earth just after the formation of the solar system, ejecting large volumes of heated material from the outer layers of both objects. A disk of orbiting material was formed, and this matter eventually stuck together to form the Moon in orbit around the Earth. This theory can explain why the Moon is made mostly of rock and how the rock was excessively heated. Furthermore, we see evidence in many places in the solar system that such collisions were common late in the formative stages of the solar system.”

Stewart says that after the last giant smashup that finally formed the moon, the Earth continued to form, accreting planetesimals — mountain-size space rocks that stuck to it, making it bigger. “These planetesimals delivered some of Earth’s *volatiles,” she says, eventually bringing the atmosphere to the state it is in today. Volatiles are elements able to escape very easily.

Ian Crawford of Birkberk College, University of London, who was not involved in the study, said that the theory sounded plausible “because multiple impacts are expected to happen in the context we think the solar system was put together.” “It’s true that each time you have a giant impact you expect a magma ocean to form. And the early planets are expected to have a transient atmosphere, so it is possible that the atmosphere would be released if the magma ocean solidified.”

*In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet or moon’s crust or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane and sulfur dioxide.

(Giant Impact That Formed the Moon Blew off Earth’s Atmosphere by Katia Moskvitch, http://www.space.com/23031-moon-origin-impact-earth-atmosphere.html)

Returning once again to our previous question, if the early atmosphere disappeared due to an impact, how did the Earth get its atmosphere back and how did it finally evolve into the one we have today? As stated the processes which created the previous atmospheres would once again begin anew, viz. outgassing’s, volcanic activity, impacts and etc. in fact not long after the moons formation another (hypothesized) cataclysmic event  which was taking place millions of miles from earth would have a direct (and beneficial) affect upon the earth.

“About 4 to 3.8 billion years ago a period of intense comet and asteroid bombardment is thought to have peppered all the planets including the Earth. Many of the numerous craters found on the Moon and other bodies in the Solar System record this event. One theory holds that a gravitational surge caused by the orbital interaction of Jupiter and Saturn sent Neptune careening into the ring of comets in the outer Solar System. The disrupted comets were sent in all directions and collided with the planets. These water-rich objects may have provided much of the water in the Earth’s oceans. The record of this event is all but lost on the Earth because our planet’s tectonic plate system and active erosion ensure that the surface is constantly renewed.” (“The Late Heavy Bombardment Ends”, http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/earth_timeline/late_heavy_bombardment)

With these continuous disruptions and impacts the heat generated by the earth would once again turn most of the volatile elements to a gaseous state which would then begin to form a thick canopy of clouds about the earth, only this time having acquired the added mass and cores of the various planetesimals especially the last great impact from Theia the earth’s gravitational as well as its magnetic field would be greatly increased the latter protecting it further from the sun’s solar winds.

During the igneous (Azoic) period those vapors coming closer to the earth, and being drawn by gravity, were still held off the surface by great heat, but as the earth cooled, and these vapors were allowed to condense, the masses increased in weight and there would be falls from the upper masses to the cooling surface. Undoubtedly at first the water was changed to steam and returned to the atmosphere. Deluge after deluge would follow from the enshrouding mass, and slowly the earth’s surface became plastic, depressing under impact and accumulations here, with resulting rises over there, and liquids flowing into the depressions. Slowly the plastic condition firmed until the surface could support the further deluges from aerial sources, and the water would remain to collect in the lower depressions (Most likely as boiling caldrons).”

One after another these were precipitated upon the earth’s surface. These deluges from descending rings would naturally reach the earth from the direction of the two magnetic poles, where there would be least resistance, because farthest from the equator, the center of the centrifugal force of the earth’s motion.

The breaking down of these “rings,” long periods apart, furnished numerous deluges (floods), and piled strata upon strata over the earth’s surface. The rush of waters from the poles toward the equator would distribute variously the sand and mud and minerals, the water strongly mineralized thus covering the entire surface of the earth, just as described at the beginning of the narrative of Genesis. (Compare Gen 1:2 and 1:9)

In our next post we will jump ahead only God knows how many millions of years to Day One of the creation.

 

Creation, Part 5

Creation, Part 5

The Time before Creation

In our previous post we were considering the tremendous heat being generated by our new planet and how many of the base elements composing the early earth converted to vapor or gas would expand and rise into the newly forming atmosphere.

A molten earth spinning on fixed axis would tend to bulge outward at the fastest moving portion, the equator, and to flatten the ends of the axis, the poles. The diameter of the equator is 7926.677 miles where the axis is 7899.988 miles, a difference of 26.689 miles. After the earth had solidified its crust, this spinning motion would not have had so much effect, so we are assured that the points of the axis were fixed while the earth was still molten, and since they are still in the center of the flattened areas, we are also assured that they have never been changed.

When the surface of the earth was molten, and that surface now generally lies many miles below the present surface, neither water nor any of the substances later added to earth’s crust were on that surface, and therefore must have been above the earth. The entire mass above the surface must have turned with the earth and at the same rate of rotation, just as the atmosphere of today. There are some scientists that claim that at that period the earth revolved at a much faster rate than at present, probably completing a revolution every 4 to 5 hours.

Most geologists are agreed that much of the material of the crust of the earth must have been in suspension in the atmosphere at the time of this igneous period. Some recent writers have ignored this logical conclusion and have all of earth’s materials including water out of the atmosphere at the beginning of this period. They explain that since the surface of the earth was so hot the water could not possibly have been there, it much have been inside the earth, for it certainly was somewhere (meteorites, comets and etc.?). But we will accept the more general view since it agrees with natural law. It is true that the water could not have remained on the surface, since had it fallen there it would have immediately been flung back into space as vapor, and taken with it any material soluble in water, it might have assimilated.

In canvassing the various estimates and appraisals of the depth of the vaporous canopy we find that a depth approximately 200,000 miles to be a general conception. Our own calculations based on present deposits and their respective gas expansions (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Gas+expansion) lead us to believe that it was somewhat under this figure. For our calculations let us take only half that amount. This would give us a diameter of twice 100,000 miles, plus the diameter of the earth, a total of 208,000 miles, or a circumference of 653,553.

At the equator then this circumference was traveling at a speed in excess of 27,000 miles per hour. But we have already noted that any mass traveling at 17,000 miles per hour would be free from gravity and over that speed would be thrown away from the earth moving outward until the centrifugal force and gravity were equal. (A point in space at which a particle experiences no net gravitational force. In theory, a unique neutral point would exist between any two static bodies. In practice, when two objects, such as Earth and the Moon are orbiting each other, there are five points, known as Lagrangian points, at which gravitational and centrifugal forces are exactly in balance.)

But it will be noted that this figure does not take into consideration one factor, namely that attraction lessens by the square of the distance, So that moving out from the earth’s surface the pull of gravity would lessen the farther out in space that matter would move. The farther away from earth’s surface any matter moved the greater would be the velocity of rotation, the greater the centrifugal force, and the less the pull of gravity.

The effect then upon a mass of vapors around a revolving earth would be to throw the outer vapors into rings above the equator and since the equatorial portion was moving out in space the polar portion would flow toward the unoccupied space to be in its turn thrown outward into the revolving belt or rings. This would be true of all the mass down to the point where gravity was equal to centrifugal force. Since centrifugal force lessens as we approach the poles such of the vapors as remained in canopy formation would approach the earth closer in Polar Regions, resulting in marked oblation that is a polar flattening of what otherwise would be a globular body. (This is somewhat noticeable in the picture below of the top of Saturn).”

The illustration below is what the earth may have resembled in this early period as it began to cool and liquid water began to collect upon its surface, of course this would not have been visible to the eye as this process would have been taking place beneath the canopy which shrouded the planet.

From the outside it is possible the early earth may have resembled Venus or possibly even Saturn that is had it had the time to fully develop. The atmospheric pressure and heat being generated beneath this canopy would most likely have been similar to that which Venus presently experiences.

How hot is Venus?

 “Venus has the distinction of being the hottest planet in the solar system, and the fault lies solely with its atmosphere.”

A warm blanket

Venus is the planet most similar to the Earth in terms of size and mass, but its atmosphere causes huge differences in the temperatures between the two planets. The distance to Venus from the sun plays only a small role in the cause of its elevated heat wave.

The atmosphere of Venus is made up almost completely of carbon dioxide, with traces of nitrogen (as well as clouds of sulfuric acid). Much of the hydrogen in the atmosphere evaporated early in the formation of Venus, leaving a thick atmosphere across the planet. At the surface, the atmosphere presses down as hard as water 3,000 feet beneath Earth’s ocean.

The average temperature on Venus is 864 degrees Fahrenheit (462 degrees Celsius). Temperature changes slightly traveling through the atmosphere, growing cooler farther away from the surface. Lead would melt on the surface of the planet, where the temperature is around 872 F (467 C).

Temperatures are cooler in the upper atmosphere, ranging from (minus 43 C) to (minus 173 C).

Balmy all year-round

Temperatures on Venus remain consistent over time. For one thing, the planet takes 243 Earth days to spin just once upon its axis (and it spins backwards, at that; on Venus, the sun rises in the west and sets in the east). The nights on Venus are as warm as the days.

Venus also has a very small tilt of only 3.39 degrees with respect to the sun, compared to 23.4 degrees on Earth. On our planet, it is the tilt that provides us with the change in seasons; the hemisphere slanted closer to the sun feels the heat of spring and summer. The lack of tilt means that even if Venus got rid of its overheated atmosphere, it would still have a fairly consistent temperature year round.

The lack of significant tilt causes only slight temperature variations from the equator to the poles, as well.”

(How hot is Venus? By Nola Taylor Redd http://www.space.com/18526-venus-temperature.html)

“Presently (that is as the earth exist today) as solar winds rush outward from the Sun at nearly a million miles per hour, they are stopped about 44,000 miles (70,800 kilometers) from the Earth when they collide with the giant magnetic envelope which surrounds the planet called the magnetosphere. Most of the solar wind flows around the magnetosphere, but in certain circumstances it can enter the magnetosphere to create a variety of dynamic space weather effects on Earth.”

“The shape of the Earth’s magnetosphere is the direct result of being blasted by solar wind. The solar wind compresses its sunward side to a distance of only 6 to 10 times the radius of the Earth. A supersonic shock wave is created sunward of Earth called the Bow Shock. Most of the solar wind particles are heated and slowed at the bow shock and detour around the Earth in the Magnetosheath. The solar wind drags out the night-side magnetosphere to possibly 1000 times Earth’s radius; its exact length is not known. This extension of the magnetosphere is known as the Magnetotail. The outer boundary of Earth’s confined geomagnetic field is called the Magnetopause. The Earth’s magnetosphere is a highly dynamic structure that responds dramatically to solar variations.” (Earth’s Magnetosphere, https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/multimedia/magnetosphere.html)

“Venus (depicted below) has no such protective shield, but it is still an immovable rock surrounded by an atmosphere that disrupts and interacts with the solar wind, causing interesting space weather effects.” (“Space weather: explosions on Venus” http://www.astronomy.com/news/2012/03/space-weather—explosions-on-venus).

“Venus is known not to have a magnetic field. The reason for its absence is not clear, but is probably related to the planet’s slow rotation or the lack of convection in the mantle. Venus only has an induced magnetosphere formed by the Sun’s magnetic field carried by the solar wind. This process can be understood as the field lines wrapping around an obstacle—Venus in this case…Due to the lack of the intrinsic magnetic field on Venus, the solar wind penetrates relatively deep into the planetary exosphere and causes substantial atmosphere loss.”

(Atmosphere of Venus, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Venus)

Over all Earth’s atmosphere is about 300 miles (or 480 kilometers) thick, but most of it (75-80%) is found within the first 10 miles in the Troposphere, in contrast Venus atmosphere is only about 42 miles (70 kilometers) thick; however its atmosphere is 90% more dense than the earth’s. Whereas most of the clouds found on Earth are found in the Troposphere on Venus the cloud deck reaches almost to the top of the atmosphere 30-40 miles up.

Some critics of the Canopy Theory have argued that the early earth could not have been surrounded by a large canopy of clouds due to its close proximity to the sun and solar winds; however the fact that Venus is still cover by a canopy of clouds even unto this day proves otherwise.

Nevertheless if our planet had been allowed to continue on in the same path as that of Venus with runaway greenhouse effects heating up its primordial atmosphere life here on earth would never have been possible, but alas a cataclysmic event was about to take place which would change all this.

Continued with next post.

Creation, Part 4

Creation, Part 4

The Time before Creation

As alluded to in our previous posts a clear distinction must be drawn between the beginning of the earth’s creation, i.e. the creation of the physical globe or earth itself (Verse 1), and its subsequent ordering (or bringing it to life) in the epoch days as narrated in the scriptures. Since the time interval between the events in Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2 is not stated, the Bible does not commit itself as to the age of the earth (nor to the heavens), even if the lengths of the epoch days were clearly stated. Consequently, there is no conflict between science and the Genesis account as to the actual age of the earth itself. Many scientists have speculated that the earth may be a little over four billion years old (4.5 being the generally accepted age), with this particular estimate we have no qualms.

To the true believer that which is written is enough, however in order to properly present our case before the skeptic or non-believer I believe we need to establish some basis upon which to present our case as some might imply that we were simply coming into the middle of the story rather than at its true beginning.

Now one of the chief stumbling blocks which most theories encounter when attempting to harmonize with the scriptures, notwithstanding the ridiculous idea held by our religious extremist friends who believe in the seven days of creation theory composed of literal twenty-four hour periods is the statement made in the Verse 2 of the opening of Genesis viz. “The earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep…,” the latter part of this statement being the troubling part.

In other words according to the divine record in the beginning (that is the beginning of the work of preparing the earth for the arrival of mankind); darkness was upon the face of the deep, no light shone upon the surface of the earth, the world at that time was in complete darkness and covered in waters. Now naturally when the earth (the physical globe) was first being formed light must have shone upon its surface, but that was something which must have transpired long before the events being described in the Genesis account. The fact that it is stated that “darkness was upon the deep,” can only imply one of two things, either the sun had not yet been created yet (another one of the ridiculous beliefs held by many extremist) or a much more reasonable view, the sun was there, but something was inhibiting its light from shining upon the face of the earth.

Here is where I believe we must begin if we are to properly present our case; we must attempt to explain how conditions might have led up to this condition of things just prior to the Lord’s work in preparing the earth for the arrival of man. And so let us look to see if we might fine amongst the many theories derived of men as to how the earth was formed the one which most likely leads up to the condition of the earth as described in the opening remarks of Genesis, “The earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep…”

From the Solar Nebular dust the Earth Emerges

“The Lord possessed me at the beginning of His way, Before His works of old…While as yet He had not made the earth or the fields, or the primal dust of the world.” Prov 8:22, 26

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System. It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous material… According to the nebular hypothesis, stars form in massive and dense clouds of molecular hydrogen—giant molecular clouds (GMC). These clouds are gravitationally unstable, and matter coalesces within them to smaller denser clumps, which then rotate, collapse, and form stars. Star formation is a complex process, which always produces a gaseous protoplanetary disk, proplyd, around the young star. This may give birth to planets in certain circumstances, which are not well known. Thus the formation of planetary systems is thought to be a natural result of star formation…The protoplanetary disk is an accretion disk that feeds the central star. Initially very hot, the disk later cools in what is known as the T tauri star stage; here, formation of small dust grains made of rocks and ice is possible. The grains eventually may coagulate into kilometer-sized planetesimals. If the disk is massive enough, the runaway accretions begin, resulting in the rapid—100,000 to 300,000 years—formation of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos. Near the star, the planetary embryos go through a stage of violent mergers, producing a few terrestrial planets.” (Nebular hypothesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebular_hypothesis)

“There are two main theories as to how the earth may have been formed both involve accretion or the sticking together of molecules and particles: one of these is Homogeneous accretion the other Heterogeneous accretion.

Homogenous accretion: Similar elements stick together, creating a solid mass. The heat generated in this process melts the particles. The heavier elements sink to the center because of gravity, creating the Earth’s sold core. Outgassing from this solid body creates the atmosphere.

Heterogeneous accretion: First, particles of metal stick together, creating the Earth’s core. Lighter elements stick to this core as it continues to cool. The gravity of this mass attracts most of the atoms that make up the atmosphere.

Both of those theories use the same basic idea — about 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth formed as particles collected within a giant disc of gas orbiting a star. Once the sun ignited, it blew all of the extra particles away, leaving the solar system as we know it. The exact process probably included both homogenous and heterogeneous accretion.

Accordingly as these collisions continue and mass increased so too gravity eventually attracting much larger items (i.e. asteroids, meteoroids and comets), these collisions in turn form planetesimals some of which eventually collide with each other to form protoplanets. Heating continues to occur causing outgassing, which in turn creates an atmosphere. Now exactly what this early atmosphere consisted of at the time is not certain.

At first, the Earth was very hot and volcanic. A solid crust formed as the planet cooled, and impacts from asteroids and other debris caused lots of craters. As the planet continued to cool, water filled the basins that had formed in the surface, creating oceans. Through earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other factors, the Earth’s surface eventually reached the shape that we know today.” (“Where did the Earth come from?” By Tracy V. Wilson http://www.howstuffworks.com/question776.htm)

“The first era in which the Earth existed is what is known as the Hadean Eon. This name comes from the Greek word “Hades” (underworld), which refers to the condition of the planet at the time. This consisted of the Earth’s surface being under a continuous bombardment by meteorites and intense volcanism, which is believed to have been severe due to the large heat flow and geothermal gradient dated to this era.

Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere, and evidence exists that liquid water existed at this time, despite the conditions on the surface. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered by comets, accumulated in the atmosphere and cooled the molten exterior of the planet to form a solid crust and produced the oceans.”  (Solar System History: How Was the Earth Formed? By Matt Williams http://www.universetoday.com/76509/how-was-the-earth-formed/)

The previous thoughts are generally accepted; however it is highly unlikely that liquid water could accumulate upon the surface of the planet at this early stage barring the tremendous heat being generated by the planet. However its accumulation in the atmosphere is not under dispute.

Note the following comments taken from another prospective.

The Earth formed under so much heat and pressure that it formed as a molten planet. For nearly the first billion years of formation (4.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) — called the Hadean Period (or hellish period) — Earth was bombarded continuously by the remnants of the dust and debris — like asteroids, meteors and comets — until it formed into a solid sphere, pulled into orbit around the sun and began to cool down. As Earth began to take solid form, it had no free oxygen in its atmosphere. It was so hot that the water droplets in its atmosphere could not settle to form surface water or ice. Its first atmosphere was also so poisonous, comprised of helium and hydrogen that nothing would have been able to survive.

Earth’s early atmosphere most likely resembled that of Jupiter’s atmosphere, which contains hydrogen, helium, methane and ammonia, and is poisonous to humans.”  (“Earths Beginnings: The Origins of Life” By Eric McLamb http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/10/earths-beginnings-origins-life/)

“The Earth did not always have the same atmosphere as the one we depend upon today. In the earliest atmosphere, the molecules of H2 and He2 dominated. These the lightest of molecules did not stay long. They are light in molecular weight, and therefore require a large gravitational attraction to keep them. The Earth is about 1/3 too light in terms of mass. Additionally, the Earth was a homogeneous mixture of molten rock and chemicals that had not yet stratified into the layers we know today. Without an iron core, there is no magnetic field in the early Earth, required to magnetically hold some of these lightest elements (nor to deflect solar winds). Constant volcanism and the decay of radioactive elements everywhere kept the planet very hot. With a thin or perhaps no basalt crust, the molten planet made water accumulation impossible.”

“As the melting point of rock ranges between 2000 degrees Fahrenheit to twice that much, it must have been in that range of temperature on the surface of the earth with increasing heat toward the center until the maximum was reached. Water not under pressure cannot be heated beyond 212 degrees, but if confined the temperature may increase until the water turns to vapor exerting tremendous pressure in all directions. As steam it will expand if possible 1645 times or roughly one cubic inch (of liquid water) becomes one cubic foot (of water vapor). Consequently if there had been any water within the molten mass, it would have expanded and being lighter than the molten rock would have risen to the surface and escaped into the atmosphere.”

In considering the tremendous heat produced by the molten earth some conception of what that heat must have been like is given to us by the heat radiated by the detonation of a thermo-nuclear explosion. A hydrogen bombs explosive center registers approximately 100 million degrees Celsius. We can see that all moisture would be converted to vapor as fast as atomic action produced it. This would also be true of other substances.

“The Hydrogen Bomb is a fusion weapon. The bomb gets its power from fusing atoms in hydrogen. In the reaction that causes the explosion for a Hydrogen Bomb, two atoms of Deuterium or Tritium hit each other to create a helium atom and neutrons. “The resulting energy is proportional to the difference in mass between the original atoms and the products of the collision.” (MSN Encarta) In order for the explosion to work, an extreme amount of heat is necessary. A nuclear fission is necessary in order to generate that much heat (which would need to be as hot as the sun). The exact temperature would be about 100,000,000 K (Kelvins) or 99,999,726 C (Celsius) or 179,999,540 F (Fahrenheit). In order to achieve this, a nuclear fission bomb is placed at the center of the device. The fission reaction creates the immense temperatures needed for the fusion reaction to take place and the real explosion occurs.” (Hydrogen Bomb, http://creationwiki.org/Hydrogen_bomb)

A major impact of just one asteroid of only a few kilometers in diameter would release the energy of several million thermo-nuclear bombs, now multiply that by a constant bombardment of hundreds of such asteroids over this period, some possibly much larger than just a few kilometers and try to imagine the amount of heat being generated at that time. A 10-kilometer object would produce an explosion of 6 × 107 megatons of TNT (equivalent to an earthquake of magnitude 12.4 on the Richter scale).

The point is that practically every element or combination of elements can be reduced to vapor (or gas) by the application of sufficient heat, and then caused to expand, many of these to an even greater degree than that of water. Therefore we see that the requirement of law is that those elements which eventually made up the crust of the earth, would have been converted to gas, and would later have condensed to solid matter in earth’s atmosphere.

Excerpts taken from “Rings and Canopies”

We will continue with our next post.

 

 

Creation, Part 3

Creation, Part 3

“The heavens proclaim the glory of God. The skies display his craftsmanship. Day after day they continue to speak; night after night they make him known. They speak without a sound or word; their voice is never heard. Yet their message has gone throughout the earth and their words to all the world. God has made a home in the heavens for the sun.” (Psa 19:1-4 New Living Translation)

Milkyway Galaxy

“The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy some 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter which contains 100–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets as well. The Solar System is located within the disk, about 27,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The stars in the inner 10,000 light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A which is likely to be a supermassive black hole.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way

“Determining the structure of our own Galaxy (and where exactly we reside in it) has been a longstanding problem for astronomers because we are inside it. In order to map the Milky Way, scientists need to accurately measure the distances to objects within the Galaxy. Measuring cosmic distances, however, also has been a difficult task, leading to large uncertainties. The result is that, while astronomers agree that our Galaxy has a spiral structure, there are disagreements on how many arms it has and on their specific locations.”

At one time it was believed that our Sun was located about halfway between the center of the galaxy and its edge located within a small, partial arm that is known as the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, nestled between the Perseus Arm and the Sagittarius Arm, however new studies find that it is a little closer to the center of the galaxy than previously thought, and that what was once thought to be but a spur may indeed be a more prominent feature of the Milky Way perhaps even a major structure or branch of the Perseus Arm itself that or possibly an independent arm segment.

The diagrams above show the position of the sun in relation to the various spiral arms of our Milky Way galaxy, as seen from above the galactic “north pole.” Each hatch mark along the side of the first diagram represents 5 kilo-parsecs, or 16,300 light-years.

“A team of astronomers has taken an important step toward mapping the Milky Way by accurately measuring the distance to the star-forming region W3OH in the Perseus spiral arm, the nearest arm to us. This long strand of stars streaks out of the Milky Way’s disk in the same manner as others seen in galaxies across the universe.

Until now scientists had difficulties figuring just how far away spiral arms are, and various measurements and techniques had discrepancies ranging by a factor of two. The new results are from a telescope nearly the size of Earth. The astronomers used the Very Long Baseline Array, taking observations from several telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands, to create the resolution of a telescope nearly 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) in diameter.

“We have established that the radio telescope we used, the Very Long Baseline Array, can measure distances with unprecedented accuracy — nearly a factor of 100 times better than previously accomplished,” (Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

In doing so, they determined that W3OH is 1.95 ± 0.04 kilo-parsecs away. That’s about 36,000,000,000,000,000 miles.”

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/10385928/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/scientists-figure-out-our-place-milky-way/#.UvZPUo2Ybce

Location is Everything

”The Sun and our Solar System have been located in a stable orbit within our galaxy for the last 4.5 billion years. This orbit lies far from the center of our galaxy and between the spiral arms (of Perseus and Sagittarius). The stability of our position is possible because the sun is one of the rare stars that lie within the “galactic co-rotation radius (Likewise referred to as the GHZ or “Galactic Habitable Zone”).” Just as there are habitable zones located in solar systems so too with respects to galaxies. Typically, the stars in our galaxy orbit the center of the galaxy at a rate that differs from the rate of the trailing spiral arms. Thus, most stars located between spiral arms do not remain there for long, but would eventually be swept inside a spiral arm. Only at a certain precise distance from the galaxy’s center, the “co-rotation radius,” can a star remain in its place between two spirals arms, orbiting at precisely the same rate as the galaxy arms rotate around the core. (Mishurov, Y.N. and L. A. Zenina. 1999. Yes, the Sun is Located near the Co-rotation Circle. Astronomy & Astrophysics 341: 81-85.).

“The estimated Galactic habitable zone ranges between 23,000 to 29,000 light years from the Galactic center. Interestingly, our Earth lies exactly in the center of the Galactic habitable zone. Although this is a distinct possibility viz. the idea of a “Galactic habitable zone” it would seem unlikely that this “habitable zone” would extend within the spirals themselves as there would be far too many stars in close proximity one with another in these areas, nevertheless in the areas located between the spirals there could possibly be billions of stars encompassing this habitable zone with billions of future habitable worlds awaiting development.

Why is it important that we are not in one of the spiral arms?

First of all our location outside the spiral arms puts us in the safest location in the galaxy. We are far removed from the more densely occupied areas, where stellar interactions, (gravitational forces between stars) can lead to disruptions in planetary orbits. Located within these spiral arms of various gases and dust are the birthing grounds of many young blue stars. If our planetary system had been located near one of these stars we might not have lasted as long as we have.

“An example of a blue star is the familiar Rigel, the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the 6th brightest star in the sky. Astronomers calculate that Rigel is approximately 700 to 900 light-years away, and yet it appears almost as bright as a star like Sirius which is only 8.3 light-years away. The temperature of Rigel is approximately 11,000 Kelvin; it’s this high temperature that accounts for Rigel’s color. Rigel puts out about 40,000 times the energy of the Sun.

An even more extreme example of a blue star is the blue supergiant Eta Carinae, located about 8,000 light-years away in the Carina constellation. Again, Eta Carinae is 10 times further away than Rigel, and yet from our perspective it’s only a little dimmer. The surface temperature of Eta Carinae is 40,000 Kelvin, and it shines with much of its radiation in the ultraviolet spectrum. Since this wavelength is invisible to our eyes, we perceive it as blue. All told, Eta Carinae is blasting out 1,000,000 times the energy of our Sun.

Blue stars burn through their fuel at a tremendous rate. With 150 times the mass of the Sun, Eta Carinae has only been around for a few million years and it’s expected to detonate as a supernova within the next 100,000 years. Our Sun, in comparison, has been around for 4.5 billion years and is expected to live another 7 billion years.”

http://www.universetoday.com/24362/blue-stars/#ixzz2tOunjY1M

It would not bode well for us to be even remotely close to a star going supernova (i.e. closer than eight parsecs, 26 light-years), at this distance the gamma rays from a supernova could penetrate the earth’s magnetic field and induce a chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere (the outer layer of the ionosphere also known as the magnetosphere), which would then strip away the upper atmosphere including the ozone layer to an extent that the surface of the earth would then be bombarded by harmful solar and cosmic radiation. So you can see the benefit of our having resided outside of the spiral arms. “The 4.5 billion year longevity of earth’s relative peaceful existence (the time needed to prepare the earth for the eventual arrival of man) would not have been possible in most other locations in our galaxy.”

And yet there is still another reason why our position outside the spiral arms is to our benefit, have you ever stood in the darkness while someone was shinning a bright light in your direction? How well were you able to perceive objects outside the glare of this blinding light? Now consider if our vantage point were that of one taken from within the spiral arms amongst the bright young stars (take Rigel for instance which shines with a luminosity 130,000 times the brightness of our sun), it might have been possible to see a small fraction of what was outside this glare, but for the most part our vision of the universe would have been greatly impaired, and of course this does not even take into consideration the stellar dust and various other nebula gases residing in the spiral arms obstructing our view. No our present position has not only allowed us to gain valuable insight into our own galaxy, but likewise to visualize the sheer immensity of the universe itself.

At one time many imagined even as they imagined at one time in regards to the earth that our galaxy was the center of the universe, but now from our unique perspective located outside the spiral arms and with the aid of modern instrumentality (specifically the Hubble Space Telescope) we have come to realize that our galaxy is but one of hundreds of billions of galaxies within the known universe. Now when we gaze into the heavens and witness this most wondrous sight we truly understand how, “The heavens declare the glory of God.”

The Importance of our Position in the Solar System

In the solar system, there likewise exists a special zone where life can exist, an area where water for the most part remains in its liquid state. This zone is called a Habitable Zone. If we calculate the range of the Habitable Zone in the solar system, it becomes 0.95 – 1.15 AU (Astronomical Unit: 1 AU = distance from Earth to Sun). Thus, if the location of the Earth was 5% closer to the Sun, all of the water on Earth would have boiled and if 15% further away from the Sun, all water would have frozen.

The green area in the diagram above shows the Habitable Zone and it is only 0.05% of the area of orbital plane occupied by planets. Amazingly, our Earth is located right in the center of the Habitable Zone. The circles outside of the Habitable Zone represent the orbits of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Another important factor for the Earth to remain in the Habitable Zone is that the Earth has to maintain a circular orbit around the sun. If the Earth had an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity larger than 0.1, all the water upon the earth would freeze at points A and C, and boil at points B and D. Luckily (?), the Earth has a very small eccentricity and rotates around the Sun in near perfect circular orbit.

Is it a coincidence or God’s design?

The Importance of the Size of our Sun

The size of the Sun is important for life on Earth. If we had a small Sun, the habitable zone also becomes small and the distance from Sun to the habitable zone would become much closer than the current one. However if the planet were too close to star (as for example, Mercury), tidal lock between the planet and star could occur with one side of the planet always facing the sun and extremely too hot for life, and the other side facing away to cold.

Now if we had a large Sun we would have had the advantage of a much larger habitable zone, with the possibility of life on one of our sister planets, however with this large sun comes possible disadvantages, for the lifetime of the star is inversely proportional to its size. If our Sun were much larger than the current one, it would consume most of its hydrogen gas in a relatively short period of time. If it ran out of hydrogen fuel, it would gradually expand and engulf the Earth.

Another condition needed is that Sun has to be a single star. Unlike our sun, more than 50% of stars are binary systems. If we had two Suns we would most likely have had a much smaller habitable zone, and of course very strange weather patterns. Luckily (?), we have only one Sun that is just right size and has an estimated (?) lifetime of another 7 billion years.

The Importance of our Moon and its Size

The Moon plays an important role for life on Earth because of its size. Compared to other planets, the Earth has exceptionally large moon (that is in relation to the size of the Earth). The radius of Earth’s moon is 1,740 km whereas that of the Mars’ moon is only about 10 km. Because of its large size the Moon helps stabilize the rotational axis of the Earth and maintains its tilt angle of 23.5 degrees all the time. If there were no Moon, the Earth’s rotational axis would be wobbling and causing unfavorable climate change.

Another important role for the Moon is in producing tides and helping to maintain Earth’s marine ecosystem. The tides mix nutrient-rich fresh water with sea water and provide nutrients to plankton which forms the basis of the marine food chain. If we didn’t have Moon, we couldn’t have ocean tides. Without the tides the sea might possibly be covered in red tide and eventually wipe out most marine life.

Coincidence or God’s design?

(Excerpts taken from “Creation or Evolution?” http://www.cv.nrao.edu/~dkim/earth_e.html)

Continued with next post.