Browsed by
Category: The Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid, Part 22

The Great Pyramid, Part 22

The Importance of Granite Plug and its relationship to the First Ascending Passage

“The Apostle tells us that ‘death reigned from Adam to Moses” (Rom 5:14), a period of over 2,500 years. Then an opportunity to escape death was granted to the people of Israel, the descendants of Jacob. God gave them the Law through Moses, and intimated that those who did the things of the Law would live in them. The people of Israel thought it an easy matter to observe the things of the Law and readily promised to do them, but they very quickly realized how powerless they were to observe this Law of God. For the Law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good (Rom 7:12), while they were sinful, born under condemnation to death. They found that they could not keep that perfect law of God inviolate. Thus the commandment which was ordained to life was found to be unto death (Rom 7:10). None could pass the perfect requirements of the Law and gain life.

The First Ascending Passage represents this opportunity to escape the downward way to death and go on an upward way to life. But just as, in reality, the people of Israel could not ascend to life by their Law, so it is found to be impossible to take advantage of the First Ascending Passage. It is blocked at the lower end by a Granite Plug. As Brother Russell clearly proves, granite in the Great Pyramid represents that which gold in the tabernacle and temple represents, namely, divine, spiritual things.

The Granite Plug blocking the lower end of the First Ascending Passage thus very well symbolizes the divine Law of God blocking the way of life. The apostle declares that ‘the Law is spiritual,” but that we are carnal, sold under sin (Rom 7:14). Thus we find that the Great Pyramid corroborates the declaration of the Scriptures: “There is none righteous, no, not one.” “For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God” (Rom 3:10, 23). Both the people of Israel and the Gentiles are alike condemned to death, and none of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him (Psa 49:7). In the Great Pyramid all are represented as hastening down the Descending Passage toward the Pit, symbolical of death.

But God, who is full of mercy and loving kindness, and who had foreseen that no one could escape death by his own efforts-neither the Jew with the Law, nor the Gentile without the law-had already provided a way of escape. We read that Jesus Christ is the “Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world,” and that he was “foreordained before the foundation of the world” (John 1:29; 1 Pet 1:19, 20). God had provided in his great Plan of the Ages that His Son should come and die for all mankind, and that he should rise again and become Lord both of the living and the dead.

Thus we read that: “In due time Christ died for the ungodly” (Rom 5:6), and: “When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son” (Gal 4:4). He was “delivered for our offenses, and was raised again for our justification” (Rom 4:25). This great scriptural truth is symbolized in the stone “Sign” and “Witness” by the Well-Shaft. (“The Great Pyramid, Why Was It Built? Who Built It?Page ix-xi)

Further insight on the Symbolism of the First Ascending Passage

THE First Ascending Passage represents the Law Covenant, or, from another point of view, the Law Dispensation. On examining the floor of the Descending Passage, which represents the downward course of ‘this present evil world,” it will be found that the portion which faces the entrance to the First Ascending Passage is composed of extremely hard limestone (Plate XIV above), whereas above and below this it is softer, and consequently much worn by the traffic of centuries.

The hardness of the floor at this part was intended for the purpose of maintaining exact measurements, but it was also intended to signify the fact that at the time when the Israelite’s were called out of Egypt to be the people of God, their standing with the Lord was firm and sure.

Owing to the extra headroom consequent upon the First Ascending Passage branching upwards from the Descending Passage in the same vertical plane, it is not necessary to stoop at this point; the traveler is here able to stand upright, and so ease his aching back. He will thus be able to appreciate the joy which the Israelites must have experienced when freed from their bondage in Egypt, and he will be enabled to sympathize with them, when, on being given the Law, they cried joyfully: “All that the Lord hath spoken we will do“-Exod. 19:1-8.

But should he now endeavor to climb the First Ascending Passage, he will find that the Granite Plug completely blocks the way. In this ingenious manner, as before explained, the Great Pyramid teaches that the way to life by the Law Covenant was impassable, and that what blocked it was the Divine Law (represented in the granite plug itself), because “by the deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified,” for “in man, that is in his flesh, dwells no good thing“-Rom 3:20; 7:18.

Nevertheless, although the Israelite’s could not keep the perfect Law of God, the Bible informs us that God permitted them to continue their endeavors to do so. The Great Pyramid teaches the same lesson, for in spite of the fact that at its beginning the First Ascending Passage is blocked completely by the Granite Plug, beyond this it is open. By its symbolical features, also, including its length, it represents the condition of Israel under the Law. Through the atonement sacrifices the Lord year by year forgave the Israelite’s their sins, and as a nation they were typically justified, that is, they were typically reckoned as having passed from the plane of condemnation represented in the Great Pyramid by the Descending Passage, to the plane of justification represented by the level of the Queen’s Chamber. That this justification was only typical is clear from the statement of the Apostle that the Law made nothing perfect, but was only a shadow of good things to come, for “it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins” (Heb 10:1, 4). Those individuals, however, who, like their father Abraham, rejoiced to see Christ’s day with the eye of faith, and remained until death true to the Lord in the midst of severe trials, had their faith accounted unto them for righteousness. They had friendship with God, and will be awakened to perfect human life through the instrumentality of the glorified Church (Heb 11:39, 40).

The mode of access by which it is now possible to reach the part beyond the Granite Plug (which is still in position) is the hole forced through the soft limestone to the right (west) of the Plug by Caliph Al Mamoun. The Lord thus delayed the discovery of the upper passages and chambers in order that they might be kept intact until the due time for their thorough examination. Once the traveler enters the First Ascending Passage he finds himself on a higher level that the Descending Passage, though still below the level of the Queen’s Chamber, which represents the plane of human perfection. By this means the Pyramid teaches the same lesson as the Chart of the Ages; for if reference be made to the latter, it will be seen that the imperfect pyramid (circled in blue), which represents the nation of Israel, is lifted measurably above the plane of human depravity (the world under Adamic condemnation, plane “R), but below the plane of human perfection (plane “N). Israel for some time resided on plane “P”, which represented their typical justification under the law.

As it is in the Descending Passage, so in the First Ascending Passage the roof is less than four feet transversely above the floor. Accordingly, the traveler is still obliged to bow his head and shoulders, though not so low as when going down the Descending Passage, because now, in walking upward, he has the advantage of the greater vertical height (4 feet 5 inches). The Pyramid thus teaches that the Jew was less degraded than the Gentile.

The way is dark, steep and slippery, and he readily stumbles and falls, more especially as there is nothing to hold on to when he slips. So slippery is this passage that we found that our measuring rods and other articles, when laid on the floor, glided rapidly to the bottom. Does not this wonderfully represent the condition of the Israelites during the Law Dispensation? Those who were sincere in heart delighted in the Law of God after the inward man, but they saw another law in their members warring against the law of their mind, and bringing them into captivity to the law of sin-Rom 7:22, 23. Bowed under the yoke of the Law, they were weary and heavy laden with the ordinances which were against them, and, as the true Light which lightest every man that cometh into the world had not yet appeared, their lamp, the Word of God, shone as yet but dimly. As a result, they stumbled, and since they were under the Law and not under Grace, they had nothing to sustain them when their feet slipped. No wonder the noble Apostle Paul, when he reflected on his former abject condition under the Law, cried despondently: “O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from this death-doomed body?” But at the time when he uttered these words he had already found the answer, and so he exclaimed triumphantly: “I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The terminal end of this passage (the last 33 ½ inches) represents the years of the earthly life of the “man Christ Jesus,” who nailed the Law to his cross, and thus by his death brought the Law Dispensation to a close. The faithful Israelites, who were looking and longing for the coming of the Messiah, being burdened by the Law, must have been comforted when they heard the gracious words of the Master: “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light“-Matt 11:28-30. Those who accepted this loving invitation found to their joy that from that Pentecostal day, fifty days after the resurrection of Christ, when the Holy Spirit fell upon them, they were no longer under the Law symbolized by the First Ascending Passage, but were members of the high or heavenly calling, symbolized by the Grand Gallery. The Law Dispensation had come to an end, and the Gospel Dispensation had commenced. The Apostle declares: “That no man is justified by the law in the sight of God it is evident: for ‘the just shall live by faith.’ And the law is not of faith: but ‘the man that doeth them shall live in them.’ Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, ‘Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree’ ”; and again, “Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, he took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross“(Gal 3:11-13; Col 2:14).

These “Israelites indeed” were now able to stand fast (upright) in the liberty wherewith Christ had made them free. This, the teaching of the Scriptures, is also the teaching of the Great Pyramid, for the vertical height of the Grand Gallery is seven times the transverse height of the First Ascending Passage, twenty-eight feet as against four feet. There is no need to stoop.

Before passing up the Grand Gallery the traveler must recognize the Well at his feet (the ransom sacrifice). As has already been explained, the Well represents ‘Hades,” thedeath-state,” and the appearance of an explosion at its mouth represents the resurrection of Christ who thus opened up the new and living way to life and immortality. In this manner the Great Pyramid symbolizes that, before the Israelite’s could be accepted as partakers of the heavenly calling, it was necessary for them to recognize the love and righteousness of God in giving his only begotten Son as a sacrifice on their behalf, and to recognize also the loving obedience of the Son in drinking the cup which the Father had given him. It symbolizes further that it was necessary for them to believe that God had by his mighty power raised Jesus from the dead and set him at his own right hand on high.

Comparatively few, however, took advantage of the grand opportunity presented to them. As a Nation they rejected the offer and were, in consequence, cast off; and as a Nation, they passed a few years later (70 A.D.) into Hades, the death-state. The few who repented, however, and were baptized for the remission of sins, were justified through faith and had peace with God, and becoming partakers of the high or heavenly calling, and being privileged to suffer and die with Christ, they were given the “exceeding great and precious promises” whereby they might become partakers of the Divine nature.  (Page 99-103)

When we return we will take a further look at the “well”.

The Great Pyramid, Part 21

The Great Pyramid, Part 21

Before we take a look at the symbolic meaning of the First Ascending Passage we would like to note a few more interesting features with regards to the “girdles”, the “granite plug”, and the “large angular stone”. As the Edgar brothers pointed out save for the first three gridles the rest of the gridles were all set in contact one with another. Likewise although they are all set vertically in line with the pyramid as were the first three they nevertheless are not square across the passage, but as seen in the illustration above (noted in red) are inclined upward diagonally from the east wall to the west. Now in respects to those gridles which we believe encompassed the granite plug it is possible that they may have been the exception, for as noted in the diagram the last gridle line shown at the upper end of the granite plug appears to be nearly straight across the passage once again.

Now the précised number of gridles found at the extreme north end of the passage is not specifically designated, we would assume however judging from the size of the previous gridles, those found immediately to the south of the granite plug that there were at least three or four, the first of which may possibly have been a half or three quarter gridle. The reason we suggest this is because of the “large angular stone”, also referred to as the “concealing stone”. This stone like the majority of the other stones used in walls of the passage was made of the typical yellow Tura limestone, in this way it match the others and did not draw any undue attention to itself. The reason for the half griddle is two-fold, first it adds greater support for the angular stone and second if it were a full size gridle (as noted in the illustration below) there would be another joint line in the roof masonry, one for the angular block and one for the gridle, these two joint lines so close to each other might signify a “tell” as to something hidden.

NOTE: We have deliberately illustrated these gridle stones in gray so as to distinguish them from the passage and the other stones, in truth however they were constructed of the same yellow Tura limestone as the rest of the interior blocks. The only stones here of notable difference would be the three red or pink granite plug stones.

On closer examination of the “Trial Passages” it was observed that where the Ascending passage and the Descending passage met the passage contracted or tapered up at the bottom as though it were ready to accept plug blocks. Whether or not this was exactly how it was done in the pyramid itself is not specified in the Edgars examinations, but it is most likely how it was done.

The only reason we bring this up is because it has a direct effect on how we calculate the précised “Point of Intersection”, which is critical to many of the time measurements provided by the pyramid, however there possibly is a way in which this was accomplished without sacrificing the integrity of the measurements. The stone cutters simply tapered the bore of the gridle stone which served to lock the first of the three stones in place. In this way the passage maintained its précised dimensions as well as its degree of incline.

However it is very possible that this tapering was so minuscule that it had very little to no effect upon the point of intersection, but was nevertheless sufficient enough to lock the plug in place. The “Trial Passages” we believe were simply designed as a pattern or replica through which to work out the details.

Managing the granite plug stones would prove quite a chore as they’re estimated individual weight is at nearly 7 tons a piece. It is highly likely as illustrated that they would have positioned several temporary stones into place first, stones upon which to better facilitate sliding the great stones into place.

You will note we have also hinted at another possible way in which the plug could have been locked into place, instead of tapering the bore of the gridle stone, the first granite stone itself is tapered like a cork, and then inserted into the gridle stone, the larger end of the plug would then catch the sides of the bore as soon as both ends of the rear of the stone entered the bore of the gridle. The other two plug stones would possibly share the same dimensions (height and width) as the front of the first plug and therefore be much easier to slide into place.

Now as to our “angular” or “concealing stone” and how it may have come to be placed in its unique position. Remember the object of this stone was to conceal the entrance to the ascending passage. This stone would have been place while they were laying the sixth course of masonry, prior to the plugs. Now at first one might assume that it would have been much easier to simply set the concealing stone first, temporarily bracing it with something to hold it up into its position (possibly some short wood beams), which would then later be removed, but……. there is a purpose behind laying the partial gridle first. The gridle above, the stone below and the unique degree of angle of the ascending passage would in the end all work together to hold this particular cut or “angled” stone precisely in its place, this even without any cement.

Consider gravity; the force of gravity acting upon any object is that object’s weight or mass. If you held a baseball bat out before you horizontally and dropped it, which end would hit the ground first the handle or the hitting end? Which end generally weights more? Now which end of our stone most likely carries the most weight? So if this block were dropped in what direction would it most likely fall? Of course it would fall straight down, but would it not likewise (if dropped from a sufficient height) begin to rotate with the heaviest end coming around and down first?

Because of gravity and the unique 26 degree angle of the Ascending passage the large angular stone becomes wedged at the top and locked at the bottom as gravity attempts to row it out (the gridle stone positioned above greatly aids in supporting this stone). However first we need to get our stone into position. In order to accomplish this it would first require positioning the stone into the passage by means of a temporary support stone (as we had illustrated in the diagram above), and then in order to get it to slide in without becoming locked into place to soon a small thin wedge of some sort would be inserted beneath the bottom edge to keep it perpendicular with the passage (this and most likely the assistance of men bracing it in some form or fashion from beneath). When the stone was positioned at a point just about flush with the descending passage this wedge along with any braces beneath would be removed and gravity would do its work causing the stone to row forward locking it into the correct position.

This would not necessarily require any cement, however some may have been applied to the upper joint as this joint would have naturally been a bit lager than the joint found at the bottom. In our illustration we have exaggerated the size of this joint merely so as to emphasize it. One could see then how the forced entry by Al Mamoun’s men might have caused this stone to give way, if in their work they had caused the stone below upon which the angular stone was locked to break off as evidently it had as is apparent from the diagram below taken from the Edgar brother’s notes (note the red areas). Once these pieces broke off especially the bottom piece the angular stone would have dropped down into the descending passage.

Let us consider how our unique passage angle of 26 degrees applies to our “angular stone”, and what would be the consequences if we were to utilize another degree of angle. Let us first consider if we were to use a slightly lower degree of angle what then might be the consequences.

At 21 degrees our angular stone would increase somewhat in size adding extra head weight to the stone, this in turn means a greater gravitational force pulling the stone downward. It is very much possible that instead of locking in like the original stone that the forces exerted upon the lower supporting stone in this example would prove too much and cause it to fracture. Of course this is only an assumption. However the true problem with this particular degree of angle is that it would destroy the time measurements and symbolisms of the Great Pyramid.

What about a higher degree of angle, how would this work out for us?

Although our angular stone is much smaller now, smaller even than the original stone, the problem now is twofold. At this particular angle there is little to no pressure on the ceiling to wedge the block into place, as we have reached the point where the force of gravity becomes stronger than the friction force, thus we have nothing locking our stone at the bottom either, and unless our stone were sufficiently cemented into place it would fall out. In fact even if it were cemented, although the cement might hold true over the centuries (as has been proven elsewhere), the stone itself and or those surrounding it might still be subject to fracturing over the 3000 year period in which it had remained. However once again the true problem with this angle is what it does to the “stone witness”, how it destroys its witness as can readily be seen by the diagram below.

In our next post we will take a look at the symbolism of the First Ascending passage.



The Great Pyramid, Part 20

The Great Pyramid, Part 20

We continue once again with the Edgar brother’s examination of the First Ascending Passage.

“Since his return (from Jerusalem), John and I (Morton Edgar) have been working in the First Ascending Passage, verifying the measurements taken by Jack and me. Measuring in this passage is very trying. The joints on the walls seem so hopelessly confused that we had been inclined many times to give up in despair. However, we felt that we must continue, as otherwise the time already spent would be wasted.

Our labor has been rewarded, for what at first was confusion to us, is now seen to be wonderful symmetry. There is design in the whole passage. This we discovered when we had carefully drawn to scale an elevation of each of the walls, in conjunction with plans of the floor and ceiling Plate CXXVIII (See the second diagram below.)

In Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, 5th edition, page 295, Professor C. Piazzi Smyth inserted the following as a foot- note: “In the year 1872, Mr. Waynman Dixon applied himself long and steadily to mapping down everything measurable touching the reputed disorder of the joint-lines in the First Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid, or that one leading up to the lower north end of the Grand Gallery; and presently perceived a most admirable order pervading the apparent disorder, tending also to hyper-excellent masonic construction. For the chief discovery was, that at stated intervals the smaller blocks forming elsewhere separately portions of the walls, floor, and ceiling of the passage, were replaced by great transverse plates of stone, with the whole of the passage’s hollow rectangular bore cut clean through them; wherefore, at these places, the said plates formed walls, floor, and ceiling, all in one piece.”

These plates of stone have been called Girdles. Before leaving home we had recognized the importance of the three upper ones as *marking important dates in the Law Dispensation.’ We therefore examined them with care, and found that while all of the Girdles are differentiated from the other stones in this passage by their remarkable structure, the other three are distinguished by symmetrical joints in the stones above and below them. An examination of these joints, as shown in the diagram—Plate CXXVIII, will demonstrate the exact symmetry of their angles one with another (We have highlighted them in Medium Gray so as to more easily distinguish this fact). Additionally, inserted into the walls immediately below the three upper Girdles, there are peculiar inset stones, which look like pointers, as if to call the Pyramid students’ special attention to these Girdles. And as if still further to accentuate their importance, you will note that the inset “pointer” stones are inserted into especially large wall stones, highlighted in Dark Gray in our diagram.

For the purpose of reference we have numbered the Girdles, beginning from the upper or south end of the passage, and counting downward—Compare with Plate XI. We find that the distance from the upper extremity of the passage to the lower joint of the first Girdle, is almost twice the distance between the lower joints of the first and second; while the distance between the first and second Girdles is nearly the same as that between the second and third, lower joint-lines in each case.’

*These are explained in Vol. II of Great Pyramid Passages; but we were unable to discover chronological significance in the lower Girdles.

Almost exactly in the center of the double space between the upper end of the passage and the first Girdle’s lower joint-line, the joints in the floor and both walls are nearly continuous with each other, forming, therefore, what we might term a Girdle Joint (Highlighted in Red). Inserted into the east wall immediately below this Girdle Joint (In between the word “East” and “Wall”), and as if to call attention to it, are two small inset stones, somewhat similar to the pointers immediately below the three important Girdles. The upper part of the passage from the top or south end down to the lower joint of the third Girdle is, therefore, divided into four parts of nearly equal length.

It is interesting to notice that the inset pointer-stones alternate, first on the east wall below the Girdle Joint, then on the west wall below the first Girdle, then on the east wall below the second Girdle, and finally on the west wall below the third Girdle. These inset stones were noticed by Mr. J. E. Perring in 1837, and are partially illustrated in Plate II of his great book of plates; but, so far as we are aware, the diagram we here present (Plate CXXVIII) is the only one in existence which shows the distinctive and symmetrical arrangement of the masonry of the First Ascending Passage in its entirety. Referring to the inset stones, Mr. Perring, filled with the theory that the Great Pyramid was a tomb, says: “In the upper [First Ascending] Passage, holes have been cut, which are now filled up, for the insertion of levers or beams to raise the sarcophagus.” Look once more at the diagram, Plate CXXVIII, and note the position and arrangement of the inset stones, and the symmetry of the whole passage: you will agree that Mr. Perring’s explanation is, to say the least, inadequate!

The three upper Girdles are vertical (See Plate XI), and square across from east to west, and are each composed of two stones, an upper and a lower, the upper forming the roof and part of both walls, and the lower the floor and the remainder of the walls. The joints on the walls of the passage between the upper and lower portions of each Girdle are horizontal, but are not opposite each other. In the first and third Girdles which, we have seen, are indicated by pointers on the west wall, the joint on the west is higher, or nearer the roof, than its companion on the east wall; while in the second Girdle, which is indicated by a pointer on the east wall, the east joint is higher than the west. It would therefore appear that the two stones which form each Girdle are not set horizontally one upon the other from east to west, but at an angle. The above two diagrams depict the third girdle illustrating how the two stones were joined together. The craftsmanship of the stone cutters were amazing, each stone needed not only to be cut so as to perfectly align with one another horizontally, but at the same time the exact degree of incline of the Ascending Passage needed to be maintained as it cut through the center of these great stones.

Those Girdles which lie lower down the passage than the three just described, are all in contact with one another. Though, like the first three, they are vertical, they do not lie square across the passage; their joint-lines on the floor and roof incline upward diagonally from the east wall to the west wall. Some of these lower Girdles are formed out of a single stone. As can be seen in the diagram (Plate CXXVIII), the fourth Girdle is very irregular in shape, its south face being cut to form no less than six distinct joint-lines with the stones above it.

The whole of the passage from the fourth Girdle down to the upper end of the Granite Plug is much dilapidated, extensive exfoliation having taken place on walls, roof and floor. Accurate measuring at this part is therefore almost impossible. However, we tried our best to get the exact positions of all the joints by stretching lines tightly along the four angles formed by the walls with the roof and floor, and taking off-sets to these lines from the various joints. Indications in the masonry forming the roof at this dilapidated part show that the stones which form the Girdles here were built in solid, end to end, after which the bore of the passage was cut through them. Above the fourth Girdle, however, there can be no doubt that the passage was constructed in the usual way, i.e., that the floor was first laid, the walls erected at the proper distance apart on the floor, and the roof-stones then placed on top of the wall-stones. Nevertheless, it is quite probable that the stones forming the three upper Girdles were built in entire, and the bore of the passage cut through them in situ. The two roof-stones immediately above and below each of the three upper Girdles, are in themselves partial girdles, thus further calling attention to the importance of these three prominent Girdles.

And yet, to the casual visitor to the Pyramid, and even to the observer who keeps his eyes about him, none of this wonderful symmetry in the masonry of the First Ascending Passage is clearly visible. The joints between the stones are in most instances so close that it is difficult to locate their exact positions, more especially as they appear to run in all directions. The first impression one gets from an endeavor to understand the system of masonry in this passage, is that it is without order. Here is the impression which Professor C. Piazzi Smyth had formed of it: “The walls show sometimes vertical and sometimes perpendicular-to-passage joints, and these are now and then confusedly interfered with by parts of horizontal courses of masonry. Altogether, there is smaller and less perfect masonry employed in the First Ascending Passage than in the Entrance Passage; giving the practical impression of the former being a necessary means of communicating between the Entrance Passage and the Grand Gallery, and having little or no symbolic importance in itself.” We have reason to believe, however, that Professor Smyth latterly came to see the important symbolical significance of this Passage; that it represents the Law Dispensation, the Age during which God had special dealings with the Jewish nation by virtue of their Law Covenant, even as the Grand Gallery symbolizes that Dispensation which follows the Jewish Age, namely the Gospel Age.

Because of the intercepting Granite Plug, and dilapidation’s, it is difficult to obtain a continuous end-to-end measurement for the length of the First Ascending Passage. Between the published figures of Professors Smyth and Petrie there is a difference of nearly 2¾ inches. A total length of very slightly over 1545 British inches (1543.464 +Pyramid inches.), from the “Point of Intersection” on the floor of the Descending Passage, up to the vertical line of the north wall of the Grand Gallery, is a fair mean between these two measures, and is the figure which yields harmony throughout the Scriptural time-measurements, and the scientific features connected with this passage. The floor-length from the upper, or southern, end of the Granite Plug, up to the vertical line of the north wall of the Grand Gallery is, according to Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, 1291.2, but according to Professor Flinders Petrie, 1293.8, British inches. According to our understanding, the theoretically correct value is a mean between these two extremes, or about 1292 1/4 British inches (1290.946 + Pyramid inches.). Regarding his measured length of the Granite Plug, namely, 178.8 British inches, Professor Smyth wrote: “It was so very difficult and roundabout to measure, that I do not attach much value to the numbers.” Professor Petrie, we believe, secured a truer length: his measure, 178.5 British inches, being barely ⅛ of an inch more than the theoretically correct amount, which is 178.189 + Pyramid inches, the figures which we now adopt.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 281-285)

Once again we will continue with our next post.


The Great Pyramid, Part 19

The Great Pyramid, Part 19


Having we believe thoroughly examined the Subterranean Chamber of the Great Pyramid we now follow the Edgar’s back up the Descending passage and out through the little gate which led us to the pit.

“Immediately above or north of the granite stone on which the grill-door is fixed, there is an irregular opening in the west wall of the Descending Passage (In the second picture presented above you are looking down from this opening to the grill-door or gate which they have just passed, which implies that you are coming up and under toward the western side of the granite plug standing on or about the level of the 6th or 7th course of masonry.)

When we stepped through this opening, we found ourselves in a large cavernous space. This cavity with its opening from the Descending Passage was hollowed out in the masonry eleven hundred years ago by Caliph Al Mamoun, son of Harun Al Raschid of Arabian Nights’ fame. After entering the cavity, when we turned round and looked up, holding our candles above our heads, we saw that the west side of the upper two-thirds of the Granite Plug, already mentioned, had been exposed by Al Mamoun’s excavation.

The small space between the lower end of the Granite Plug, and the roof-line of the Descending Passage, was originally closed by a smooth limestone block similar to the other stones which form the roof of the Descending Passage, and in line with them (as depicted in the diagram above). So effectually did this limestone block conceal the entrance of the First Ascending Passage, that none of the classic nations knew of the existence of the upper passages and chambers. Later, the little of what was once known by ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, was lost, for even the site of entrance to the Great Pyramid became forgotten. Consequently, when Caliph Al Mamoun, with the mistaken idea that the Great Pyramid contained treasures of gold and precious stones, desired to enter it and explore its wonders, there was only an indistinct rumor to guide him towards trying the northern rather than any other side of the monument. He selected a spot in the middle line on the seventh course of masonry, and, therefore, several feet below and to the right of the true Entrance. Here he caused his workmen to force a passage horizontally into the great mass of the Pyramid. (This theory of course has been debated by many scholars as discussed in one of our earlier post, The Great Pyramid, Part 11).

It is reported that after weeks of fruitless quarrying, the Caliph’s despairing workmen were disposed to abandon their task, when one day they heard a noise as if something had fallen in an interior space a few feet from where they were. They immediately set to work eastwards in the direction of the sound, and soon burst into the Descending Passage, thus forming the irregular opening already described. There they found that the noise had been caused by the falling of the large angular stone, which for ages had formed part of the roof of the Descending Passage, and had sealed up the entrance to the upper passages and chambers. In this way, the Pyramid’s most important structural secret was revealed for the first time since the erection of the building; and had it not been for the shaking of the masonry which caused the roof-stone to become dislodged and fall, the upper passages might even yet have remained unknown.

But the workmen, though they had discovered the First Ascending Passage, found that access into it is prevented by the Granite Plug, which is so tightly wedged that it is impossible to remove it entire, and so hard that it would be extremely difficult to break up. They chose the easier plan of breaking and removing the limestone blocks to the right or west of the Granite Plug, and so forced their way upwards into the passage above. This discovery of the upper passages was made in the year 820 A.D.; and as the Great Pyramid was built about the year 2140 B.C., their existence must have been unknown for practically three thousand years!

Imagine, when they laid the first of the great ceiling stones above the Kings Chamber this would be the last time any man would set foot in these upper passages, and when the second stone above that was laid the last time light would shine in its grand corridors for nearly three thousand years. Think of the history that transpired during this time. 155 years after its completion (roughly B.C. 2140), God would establish his covenant with Abraham. 430 years after this (after the covenant made with Abraham), the Jews would begin their Exodus from Egypt and God would establish the Law Covenant with the nation of Israel. Nearly 1600 years later (1553 to be precise) Jesus would be born in Bethlehem and not soon after the Jewish age would end and the Gospel Age would begin. It would yet be another 800 or so years later shortly following the crowning of Charlemagne as Emperor that the upper passages would be discovered once again.

To resume: having passed through the forced hole in the west wall of the Descending Passage into the cavernous hollow, and then, taking advantage of a ledge and a series of notches on the high south-east wall of the hollow (Today replaced by carved steps in the stone as noted above), we climbed to the upper end of the Granite Plug and gained access to the First Ascending Passage, which runs in the same vertical plane and at the same angle to the horizon as the Descending Passage. We were now able to inspect the upper butt-end of the Granite Plug, which is shown to advantage in the second photo above.

To proceed up the First Ascending Passage, we required to stoop uncomfortably low, for, like the Descending Passage, its roof is scarcely four feet above its floor. When, however, we reach the place where, to our joy, we found a level floor, and abundance of room to stand erect and so relieve our aching backs, we were now at the lower end of the noblest passage in the Great Pyramid, which has been well name the Grand Gallery. This Gallery ascends in the same vertical plane, and at the same angle, as the First Ascending Passage, the inclined floors of both being continuous. The reason why we stepped on to a level floor on emerging from the First Ascending Passage is because another passage, called the Horizontal Passage, also has its beginning at this place. We will examine these areas more thoroughly later, but for now we would like to continue our examination of the First Ascending Passage. (“The Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers”, Page 59-65)

Continued with next post.




The Great Pyramid, Part 18

The Great Pyramid, Part 18


“The Subterranean Chamber is by far the largest chamber in the Pyramid, being, approximately, 27 feet from north to south, by 46 feet from east to west. Its area, therefore, is more than double that of the King’s Chamber, which measures 17 feet by 34 feet. Although the roof and walls of this large Subterranean Chamber are by no means smooth, they are for the most part square and level; but the floor is extremely rugged and unfinished, and is much encumbered with stones and sand.” (Page 176)

“While the roof and four walls of the Subterranean Chamber have been made fairly even, the floor, on the contrary, has been left in an extremely broken and unfinished condition, by reason of which the name ‘Bottomless Pit” has been aptly applied by some to this chamber. It is a fitting termination to the long low Descending Passage which leads down to it.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 91)

“In very early times, the Descending Passage appears to have been sufficiently clear to allow of venturesome travelers making occasional visits to the Subterranean Chamber; but in 1763, Davison, when describing the Descending Passage, wrote: ‘At the end of one hundred and thirty-one feet [from the junction of the First Ascending Passage] I found it so filled up with earth, that there was no possibility of proceeding.” It remained in this condition until the year 1817, when, by the efforts of M. Caviglia, access to the Subterranean Chamber was restored; and at the same time the whole length of the Well-shaft was cleared. M. Caviglia was afterward for a short time in the employment of Col. Howard Vyse.

Caviglia did not completely clear out the Descending Passage, for, twenty years afterward (in 1837), Col. Howard Vyse, in his description of the state in which he found the Great Pyramid previous to commending his extensive operations on it and the other Pyramids of Gizeh, wrote that, though open, it was ‘much encumbered with stones and rubbish.” This no doubt explains why he measured the passage along the roof-line, and not along the floor. When Professor C. Piazzi Smyth visited the Pyramid in 1865, the passage below its juncture with the First Ascending Passage appears to have again become so blocked with dust and large stones, that he did not visit the lower sections at all. The measurements of these parts given in his Pyramid books were derived from Col. Howard Vyse’s publication, and are, unfortunately, inaccurate.

In 1881, Professor Flinders Petrie caused the obstructing debris to be removed sufficiently for him to descend. It was during these operations that he discovered the large granite stone, which lies on the floor a little lower than the entrance to the First Ascending Passage. He did not disturb it. The parts which he found most encumbered were those at and below the granite block, and the lowermost thirty feet of the slope where the rains had washed down much sand. He did not have this material carried out, but instructed his men to distribute it more or less uniformly deep along the length of the passage as well as in the Subterranean Chamber. Thus we see that the floor of this Descending Passage has never been so thoroughly cleared, at least in modern times, as it now is.” “For the first time known in history, an accurate continuous floor-measurement of the passage from end to end was now made possible.” (Page 145, 171)

“During their first inspection of the Great Pyramid in the Spring of 1909 the Edgar’s had instructed their Arab assistant Judah to employ men to clear out the stones and sand which had accumulated in the Subterranean Chamber and Descending Passage, this in order to better facilitate a more accurate measurement of the Passage and Chamber, prior to this an American excavator had previously cleared out about thirty feet of the lower end of the passage as well as the lower end of the Well-shaft, but by the time of their visit the passage was once again blocked with debris throughout the greater part of its length, with the lower third completely filled again. Apparently it was much easier to throw any excess refuge down into the lower end of the Descending Passage and into the Pit than it was to bring it up the passage discarding it outside the Pyramid. Later during their second visit in 1912 they would once again embark on a further cleaning and restoration of the subterranean Chamber, as pictured in the black and white photo below. The color photo is of a more recent restoration which I believe took place around 1998-99.” (Pages 143, 181)

Personally I believe the debris adds character to the Subterranean Chamber and to what it signifies and that it was a mistake to remove all the debris, luckily however we still possess photos such as those taken by the Edgar’s above to remind us of its original condition prior to excavations. The true significance and meanings to the interior passages and chambers did not fully come to realization until just about the time of the Harvest Message and thus I believe the Lord intended that what we would take (i.e. comprehend) with regards to the mystery of the Pyramid and its interior chambers and passages should be based upon what was revealed at this particular time prior to any excavations and or etc.

Archaeologist are fawn of excavating sites meticulously believing that the true significance of a fine is hidden beneath the debris covering the site, but in this particular instance I believe the debris is a central element in the visualization of the chambers theme, the unfinished, broken and refuge filled chamber uniquely represents the abode of the dead, the final resting place of the refuge of the earth, the bottomless pit.

“The Subterranean Chamber of the Great Pyramid is roughly halved into two parts-an eastern and western. In the eastern half, the floor is excavated much lower than in the western. The large deep shaft is approximately in the center of the eastern portion. At the northeast corner of the chamber the floor is 12 feet, and at the southeast corner 14 feet, below the roof; but at the middle of the east wall, opposite the shaft, it is 17 feet below the roof. In the western half, which begins about 21 feet from the east wall, the rocky floor rises in high receding mounds, which reach to within about 10 inches of the roof. In our photograph which was taken with the camera erected near the east wall and pointing directly west (See black and white photo at top of page), it will be noticed that these mounds lie north and south, and are divided by a narrow trench, two and half feet wide, which inclines up the middle of the chamber, rather to the north of the center, and terminates with a width of two feet at the west wall. John is sitting at the entrance to this trench on the north side, while Judah reclines on top of the north mound.

At the north end of the west wall at the roof, we disclosed in our clearing operations a small and roughly squared recess. In appearance it is as if a small westward passage had been contemplated, but had been abandoned shortly after work on it had commended, as it is only from six to eighteen inches deep, the inner end being very irregular. Adjoining the wall to the north of the recess, there is a peculiar upright ridge of rock reaching from the floor to within 13 inches of the roof. It runs parallel with and about three feet from the north wall of the chamber; the long narrow space between the two is not unlike a horse-stall.” (Page 181)

In the black and white photo below is shown one of the Edgar’s attendants (Stanley) kneeling at the north–west end of this small ridge of the rock running along the north wall, he is looking directly at the small recess cut into the rear of the Chamber.

“In the unfinished floor of the Pit (as the Subterranean Chamber is generally referred to) appears the large, square mouth of a deep vertical shaft (pictured below in the colored picture). We (that is the Edgar brothers and their attendants) had always to avoid walking too near its edge, for the rough uneven floor of the Pit is covered with loose crumbling debris…” (Page 59)

“We should prefer the removal of every vestige of this debris, that we might examine and photograph the original contour of the rough floor, but the expense stands in the way. We have had some clearing done, however, in front of the doorway of the little south passage, and also at the west wall, which was almost entirely hidden by a bank of the debris seven or eight feet deep. This obscuring bank (referred to by Professor Flinders Petrie) having been cleared away, the west wall is now exposed to view; and we find that for a width of 13 feet in the middle of this end of the chamber, the floor is fairly well leveled, and is about five and a half feet below the roof, leaving almost sufficient headroom for one of average height to stand upright.

The larger stones removed by our men are stacked elsewhere in the chamber. The sand and small stones were thrown into the lower depths of the vertical shaft in the middle of the floor at the eastern end; for this portion of the shaft is a modern excavation by Mr. Perring, as explained in the first volume of Pyramids of Gizeh by Col. Howard Vyse. The upper, original, part of the vertical shaft (which we refrained from filling) is peculiarly arranged in two sections.

The ancient workmen cut a square hole in the floor, the bottom of which is fairly level and at a vertical distance of about 22 feet below the roof of the Subterranean Chamber. (It is not possible to state a definite depth for the hole below the chamber’s floor, for this floor is so irregular, as can be judged from our photographs, that any figures would be misleading.) And from one corner of this hole they cut another, smaller, square hole for a further depth of three and a half feet. The first hole, or shaft, is approximately seven feet square, and the second approximately five feet square. (Only approximate measures can be secured, for there is no part of the Subterranean Chamber clearly defined.) The sides of these ancient shafts lie nearly diagonally to the sides of the chamber. From the floor of the lower, second, shaft Mr. Perring sunk his irregularly rounded excavation. (Page 176)

In the first photo above we are standing on the opposite side of the vertical shaft looking north toward the square doorway of the Small Horizontal Passage by which entrance was gained to the Chamber.

“…Directly opposite this doorway… we perceived by the light of our candles another low doorway (second photo). On investigating this we found it to be the beginning of a small-bore passage, running horizontally southward for fully 50 feet to a blind end.” (Page 59)

Both the mouth of the deep vertical shaft and the small blind passage located at the bottom left hand corner of the south wall can be seen in the black and white photo above, however since that time due to safety concerns a gate has been erected around the deep vertical shaft in order to keep anyone from stumbling into the shaft, likewise you will note that a gate has been placed over the small blind passage as seen in the first photo below.

Below we have two photos the first is a view of what you would see immediately upon stepping (i.e. crawling) through the short little horizontal passage at the end of the Descending Passage into the Subterranean Chamber and looking toward the south west rear corner of the chamber, the second photo is a view from inside the chamber standing in front of the 50 foot little blind passage looking back toward the north wall and the entrance into the chamber.

The illustration below is a cross section of the Subterranean Chamber looking west, showing the 50 foot blind passage, and the vertical shaft which was dug beneath the Chamber extending into the bedrock. Extending another 36 feet below this vertical shaft is Perring’s shaft.

“Col. Howard Vyse had instructed Mr. Perring to excavate this deep shaft to test the truth of a theory which claimed, on the supposed authority of Herodotus, that a still lower and secret subterranean chamber existed, in which Cheops, the accredited builder of the Great Pyramid, was said to have been interred. But after penetrating to a considerable depth without result, the work was abandoned because of the lack of pure air. About a thousand feet to the southeast of the Great Pyramid, there is a large and very deep sepulchral pit, now named ‘Campbell’s Tomb,” which was cleared out by Col. Howard Vyse. Professor C. Piazzi Smyth proves that this tomb more nearly answers Herodotus’ description of Cheops’ burial place, and Professor Flinders Petrie concurs with him in this opinion.” (Page 181)


“Campbell’s Tomb is a shaft tomb located about thirty meters west of the Sphinx enclosure. The tomb is at the bottom of a fifty-foot shaft sunk into the quarry floor and has been dated to about 600 B.C. Sand filled the shaft until its excavation in the 1830s.” The second illustration above was taken from Colonel Vyse’s notes.

In conclusion the Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it is often referred to, represents the death state, oblivion, described in Eccl 9:10. “Whatsoever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work or device or knowledge or wisdom in the grave where you are going.” The Bible refers to death as the pit of destruction”.

But You, O God, shall bring them down to the pit of destruction; Bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half their days; But I will trust in you.” Psa 55:23

For Sheol cannot thank You, Death cannot praise you; those who go down to the pit cannot hope for your truth.” Isa 38:18                                                                  

The Pit chamber is an appropriate picture of the death state. It is large, and there is no way around it, and in its original condition (with all the debris remaining) the entire floor gravitated (tilted) toward the Vertical shaft. The Subterranean Chamber symbolizes the natural end of man’s downward course, death, destruction.”

The wages of sin is death.” Rom 6:23

(The Great Pyramid: Ancient Wonder Modern Mystery, Page 19)

In our next post we will examine the First Ascending Passage.


The Great Pyramid, Part 17

The Great Pyramid, Part 17


“Speaking of the Great Pyramid, C. T. Russell says: ‘But while the outward testimony of this great structure is thus complete and in accord with God’s written revelation, its inner construction is even more wonderful. While its outward form illustrates the completed results of God’s Plan of Redemption, the inner construction marks and illustrates every prominent feature of that plan as it has developed from age to age, down to its glorious and complete consummation.”

However in order to obtain an intelligent and appreciative understanding of the Great Pyramid specifically in regards to the symbolical aspects of this structure, one must first acquaint themselves with the interior system of this structure. The names given to the various passages and chambers are those commonly accepted by Pyramid students.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Page 57)

In our examination here of the interior we will be simply following along with Brother John and Morton Edgar in their examination of the structure adding any thoughts or comments that we might have as we go along (in italics as always). Now it is apparent that since their original visit further excavations have taken place (and continue to do so), and so with this in mind we may from time to time note some differences between the older photos and the newer ones, however this does not diminish the value of some of the older photos, in fact when the true symbolical significance of some of the various features of this structure are properly understood some of the older photos will prove of far more value than the newer ones.

As was mentioned in one of our earlier posts there is but one original Entrance to the interior of the Great Pyramid High up on the face of the northern flank (about 50 feet vertically above the ground), and nearly twenty-four feet to the east of the middle line of the structure, there is a small doorway which leads into the Descending Passage, which, like all the other primary passages, runs from north to south.

So low is the roof of this passage (barely four feet), that we are required to stoop considerably, and the difficulty of progression increases by its slipperiness and steep downward inclination (as can be seen by the above photo). For the first seventy-eight feet or so the center of the floor is hewn and worn into a series of irregular trenches. These tended to increase the difficulty of our descent, though here and there the extra vertical height which they afford enabled us to walk upright.” (Page 57)

In this old photo you can see the “trench” spoken of above, cut into the floor of the descending passage; this trench was obviously not a part of the original design but was no doubt something which was added at a later date most likely to better facilitate movement up and down the passage. It appears from the account given by the Edgar’s that this trench only extended to just shy of the point where the descending passage begins its decent through the solid rock core beneath the Pyramid.

Continuing on now a few feet further down the passage we noticed above us a depression in the roof, into which a rectangular, dark granite block is fitted. This is the lower butt-end of a series of three large granite stones, named collectively the Granite Plug, because they completely stop up the lower end of the First Ascending Passage. (Page 57)

“The small space between the lower end of the Granite Plug, and the roof-line of the Descending Passage, was originally closed by a smooth limestone block similar to the other stones which form the roof of the Descending Passage, and in line with them (Shown above). So effectually did this limestone block conceal the entrance of the First Ascending Passage, that none of the classic nations knew of the existence of the upper passages and chambers. Later, the little of what was once known by ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, was lost, for even the site of entrance to the Great Pyramid became forgotten.” (Page 63)

“At this particular juncture in the passage the floor beneath us is found to be composed of such hard limestone, that the traffic and vandalism of centuries have made little impression on it. For a length of about ten feet the surface is so smooth that to walk on it is impossible, unless one is wearing rubber soled shoes, or bare feet, and even then the support afforded by the side walls may not be disdained.” (Pages 57-59)

The photo above is a picture of the Descending Passage as it appears today looking north back up the passage toward the original entrance standing just beneath the granite plug, you will note that the trench has been completely covered by walking planks most likely designed to aid the custodians of the structure in maintaining this part of the pyramid. This original entrance is closed to the public with entrance now being facilitated through the entrance cut by Al Mamoun’s men.

Returning once again now to the Edgar’s account from just below the granite plug, ‘Visitors who are wearing boots and have no one to assist them, have to sit on their heels at this point, and slide down until their further descent is arrested by a fragmentary block of limestone, this block rests against a large fractured granite stone, which is tightly wedged across the floor of the passage (possibly a little hard to make out at first in this black and white photo, but it’s there, you just have to look very closely, it’s located just behind the limestone block which is resting against the east side of the passage). Along the top of the granite stone, between it and the roof, a small iron grill-door has been adjusted. (Neither the two stones in the present position, nor the grill-door form any part of the original design.) So confined is the space between the upper surface of the block of granite and the roof, that, whenever we required to descend to the lower parts of the Pyramid in pursuance of our work, we were compelled first to sit on the granite stone with our feet thrust through the narrow opening, and then, taking firm hold of the thin iron lintel of the grill-door, lower ourselves cautiously through the opening until our feet rested on the inclined floor of the passage below. This grill-door is usually locked, but the Director-General of Antiquities in Egypt kindly permitted it to remain unlocked all the time of our visit.” (Page 59)

The original gate, limestone fragment and granite stone spoken of by the Edgar’s above has long since been removed and replaced with a much newer gate one which better affords the visitor much easier access to the lower part of the passage.

“Immediately above or north of the granite stone on which the grill-door was originally fixed, there is an irregular opening in the west wall of the Descending Passage (red arrow). When we stepped through this opening, we found ourselves in a large cavernous space. This cavity with its opening from the Descending Passage was hollowed out in the masonry eleven hundred years ago by Caliph Al Mamoun…  In the photo below we are standing in this cavity roughly about where Brother John Edgar is seen in the second photo below, from this vantage point we are looking back down towards the Descending Passage with its newly installed grill door leading to the Subterranean Chamber.

After entering the cavity, we observed the west end of the upper two-thirds of the Granite Plug, which had previously been exposed by Al Mamoun’s excavation. (Pages 59-63)


Retuning back down to the Descending Passage with the gate open we are looking south down the descending passage, walking planks along with hand rails and Florissant lighting now aid the visitor in his decent into the abyss. Even now with the additional lighting the passage still looks a bit ominous one could only imagine how it must have appeared to the Edgar’s using only candles, especially after having to climb through that little iron grill door previously installed.

“Only one-fourth of the total length of the Descending Passage runs through the Pyramid proper. The remaining three-fourths, progressing southwards at the same steep angle (approximately 26 degrees), is forced through the solid rock upon which the Pyramid stands, and ends in the Small Horizontal Passage which continues in the same southerly direction, and leads first to a small ante-chamber or Recess, and then to a large Subterranean Chamber carved out in the heart of the rock about one hundred feet vertically below the center of the base-line of the Pyramid.” (Page 91) We will take a closer look at this Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it is sometimes referred in our next post.


In the first photo below Brother John Edgar is seen sitting right at the juncture of the Descending Passage where it meets up with the Small Horizontal Passage which leads to the Subterranean Chamber. Our second photo is taken from the Subterranean Chamber looking back north down through the Small Horizontal Passage toward the juncture where it meets up with the Descending Passage you can just make out the walking planks where they end. Also of note just beyond the Florissant light to the left is the small “Recess” spoken of earlier.


“In the Descending Passage, about 24 feet up from the lower end (where John is seen sitting), there is an opening in the west wall. It is the entrance into a small passage, six feet in length, which leads to the lower end of an almost vertical shaft, only a little over two feet square in bore, named the Well.” (Page 59)

In our first picture below we are kneeling in the Descending Passage looking (west) down the little six foot passage toward the lower end of the Well-Shaft. The almost vertical incline of the shaft is self evident from Judah’s (their Arab attendants) ascent up the passage. The rod seen here in Judah’s hand is being held parallel with the incline of the lower reach of the well-shaft.

The second photo below one which we had seen previously is a view of the little six foot passage looking (east) or back toward the Descending Passage where Brother John Edgar is found descending the passage on his way to the juncture of the Descending Passage and the Small Horizontal Passage. It will also be noted here that this little six foot passage, “does not completely lie at right angles to the Descending Passage, but inclines slightly to the north with its floor gradually dipping down toward the western extremity by about two feet in the whole length of the passage. The roof and south wall of this little passage are very uneven, but the north wall is fairly straight and level.

How much the roughness and brokenness of the mouth of the lower end of the well may be due to dilapidation or mishandling since the time it was cut by the ancient workmen, it is difficult to say. If the opening was originally covered by a stone (a concealing block) as Professor Petrie believes, and as is quite probable, those who removed it may have knocked away the edges of the mouth in their endeavors to dislodge it from its setting.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 192-195)

The Symbolic significance of the Descending Passage

“Because of its downward slope and very small bore, the whole Descending Passage suggests the thought of the world of mankind bowed under the curse, hastening towards destruction. Recall how “The Broad way that leads to destruction” is typified in the “Basement Sheet” located just beneath the Descending Passage.

Since the transverse height of the Descending Passage is scarcely four feet in height, the man who travels down this passage is required to stoop very low. The steep downward inclination of the roof compels him to bow his head and shoulders even lower than if the passage were horizontal. So cramped is the posture, that before he has gone far his back, head, and legs begin to ache, and he soon longs for an opportunity to stand upright once again; but there is no relief, and as he continues his downward course he finds it more and more laborious and painful. At first, the light streaming in from the Entrance aids him in choosing his footing, but the further he proceeds the gloomier becomes the way, until at length he requires to grope along in almost complete darkness, unless he possesses a lamp to light his way. (Prov 4:19; 2 Sam 22:29; Psa 119:105) When he has reached the lower extremity of the passage, should he look back, he will see the light at the Entrance now reduced to a mere point owing to the distance, and serving him only as a reminder of the freedom and light once enjoyed. But after he passes the bend of the passage at the small horizontal portion, even this small link with the past is lost. As the roof here is even lower than that of the Descending Passage, at this part of the journey he will be forced to his knees, and if he should continue without the aid of a lamp, he will be require to creep on in complete darkness, until at last he stumbles into the ‘Pit.” A few feet before the end of the way, the passage is a little roomier (at the “Recess), and this may cause him to imagine that he will obtain more freedom if he perseveres: but the hope is a delusive one, for the passage becomes as narrow as it was before, and remains so until the Pit is reached.

Is not this a graphic illustration of the condition of the world, bowed under the yoke of the Adamic condemnation to death, groping and stumbling in the darkness, and finding no permanent peace and happiness in spite of all its plans and speculations. This downward course had its first beginning at the fall when God, in passing the sentence of death upon Adam, the head of the race of mankind, said to him: ‘Cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shall thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shall eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread, until thou return unto the ground; for out of it were thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shall thou return“-Rom 8:22; Gen 3:17-19.

Though, as we have seen, God has been silently choosing a special people to himself and has been carrying out his beneficent purposes in them, ‘the whole world [still] lies in the wicked one“-1 John 5:19, R.V. The only hindrances placed by God in the way of the downward course of mankind have been (1) the indirect restraining influence of the truth manifested in the lives and sayings of his people (Matt 5:13, 14), and (2) the direct prevention of anything which would interfere in any way with the outworking of the Divine plane of salvation. Had men been given complete liberty, their evil desires and lack of judgment would long ago have precipitated matters, but God restrained them, as we read in Psa 76:10-“Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shall thou restrain.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 91-93)

In our next post we shall take a closer look at the Subterranean Chamber or Pit as it sometimes is called.


The Great Pyramid, Part 16

The Great Pyramid, Part 16

“Of all the pyramids the one which preeminently attracts the attention of tourists as well as of pyramid students, is that which by common consent has been named the Great Pyramid, or simply The Pyramid. This is partly because of its superior size, but chiefly because of the extraordinary skill of workmanship which it displays…nevertheless the majority of visitors simply walk right past the Great Pyramid, to admire the Sphinx instead. As usual, the Idol receives the most attention and worship. True they are no doubt impressed by the immense size of the Great Pyramid; but everything there bespeaks of toil and labor, and thus comparatively few ascend to its summit; fewer still venture within, and even of the few who do most of these are totally oblivious to the true significance of its interior passages.” (Great Pyramid Passages Pages 17 and 140)

It should be noted that the foregoing remarks were made by the author back in 1909, and that even with the increase of knowledge and understanding which we have today in regards to the Great Pyramid and its true significance the majority of visitors to the pyramids are still oblivious of its true value, still more fascinated with the Sphinx and the second pyramid as is evidenced in the many photos taken of the pyramids many of which erroneously make it appear as though the second pyramid is the largest of the three and of prime importance, this fact can easily be seen for yourself just type in “the great pyramid” in your search engine and then click on images, you will see for yourself what the true focal point of interest is.

If only they knew what they were missing, that one day not too far into the future the pyramid which they overlooked, which they deemed unseemly (rough and unattractive), but for its immense size nothing of particular interest that this particular pyramid would be the one restored to its previous glory memorialized for all eternity as a monument to the Lord and to the Divine Plan of the Ages. The Sphinx as well as the other pyramids mere idols, man-made attempts to glorify men rather than God brought to dust and long forgotten.

“However true it may be that some, if not all, of the smaller pyramids were originally built to be used as tombs it is certain that this was never the case with regards to the Great Pyramid, that while constructed by men, even as the Bible nevertheless was of Divine origin or intention, erected for the purpose of teaching the important truth of God’s infinite wisdom and foreknowledge. The first to propose and prove this view was John Taylor of London in a book published in 1859 A.D. and entitled The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built? And Who Built It? What convinced him were mainly the many important scientific truths which he found to be embodied in this wonderful structure…

Before his death, John Taylor requested Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, at that time Astronomer Royal for Scotland, to go to Egypt and make a thorough scientific examination of the Great Pyramid. This Professor Smyth did during the winter 1864-5. In his Life and Work at the Great Pyramid, He has left on record minute measurements of every important part of the structure, except, on the exterior, the few remaining casing-stones, and, in the interior, the Subterranean Chamber or Pit, and the lower three-fourths of the Descending Passage. Large accumulations of rubbish prevented him (at the time) from exploring these portions. With the exception of minute fractional differences in certain parts, these measurements have since been confirmed by other scientific investigators, prominent among who is Professor Flinders Petrie, in spite of the fact that he ridicules the various scientific and religious theories warmly advocated by Professor Smyth.

Consequent upon the work of Professor Smyth, many able minds have been awakened to search into the various problems presented by the Great Pyramid. Some of these investigators have claimed not only that it embodies great scientific truths, but also that it sets forth symbolically and by measurement the Divine plan of salvation-that, in fact, it is Messianic. Among the supporters of this view Professor Smyth himself; but the chief one has been C. T. Russell, Pastor of Brooklyn Tabernacle, N.Y. Previous to his study of the Great Pyramid, he had discovered many wonderful truths in the Scriptures regarding the plan of salvation, truths which reveal the harmonious co-operation of Divine wisdom, justice, love and power, and therefore exalted his conception of the character and purposes of the creator and sustainer of the universe. With his mind clarified by the knowledge thus gained, he was enabled to discover symbolic and prophetic features in the Great Pyramid, which had necessarily been hidden from previous Pyramid students.” (Great Pyramid Passages Pages 12-17)

The Symbolism of the Great Pyramid

Besides the many scientific truths now known to be embodied in the Great Pyramid, many of which are well known, still other truths are taught by this “Miracle in Stone, which many are completely unaware .” Symbolically, each passage and chamber in the monument represents some essential feature in the Lord’s Plan of the Ages:—

1) The Descending Passage: The course of this “Present Evil World” depicts the road that leads to destruction.

2) The Subterranean Chamber: Representative of the Destruction which terminates not only the eternal destruction or demise of the unsaved but likewise the final destruction of the present evil systems. This chamber is likewise known as the “Bottomless Pit.”

3) The First Ascending Passage: Representative of the Law Age, during which time the nation of Israel endeavored to gain life by the works of the Law.

4) The Granite Plug: blocking the way up the First Ascending Passage: The perfect Divine Law of God, rendering the “way which was ordained to life” impassable.

5) The Grand Gallery: Representative of the Gospel Age, during which time the High-Calling to membership in the Body of Christ is offered to the faithful.

6) The Ante-Chamber: The “Holy” of the Tabernacle; the “School of Christ“; the spirit-begotten condition of those who have presented their bodies a living sacrifice to God.

7) The King’s Chamber: The “Most Holy” of the Tabernacle; the “Sanctuary“; the Divine spirit nature of Christ and His body-members; the Kingdom of Christ.

8) The Queen’s Chamber: The condition of Human Perfection, as possessed by Adam prior to his fall; and by the “Man Christ Jesus” at His first advent when He came to lay down His life as the Savior of Mankind, and Redeemer of Israel; and which will again be the possession of the human race when Restitution is complete (Acts 3:19-21).

9) The Horizontal Passage: leading to the Queen’s Chamber: The complete period of the world’s history from the time of Adam to the end of Christ’s Millennial reign, when all will have attained perfect human life, the condition symbolized by the Queen’s Chamber to which the passage leads. Also representative of the New (Law) Covenant, made operative when Israel’s “blindness in part” is turned away from them.

10) The Well-shaft: Representative of the Ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ, thus providing a “way of escape” from the death-doomed conditions of the world represented by the Descending Passage. As the central theme of the Bible is the sacrificial death, and the resurrection, of Jesus Christ, so the Well-shaft in the Great Pyramid is the key which opens the true teaching of the building’s entire passage and chamber system. As a Bible without the doctrine of the Ransom-sacrifice of Christ would be useless to a world in need of a Savior (Rom 4:25; 2Co 5:14, 15), so the Pyramid without its Well-shaft would be meaningless. The Well-shaft, therefore, is an important part of the original design of the building; as, indeed, is proved by the arrangement of the Grand Gallery’s masonry in the region of the shaft’s upper mouth.

11) The Plane of Human Perfection: Represented in the Great Pyramid by the produced level of the floor-line of the Queen’s Chamber.

Biblical Times and Seasons: The absolute agreement of the inch-lengths of the various passage-ways in the Great Pyramid with the years of the chronological periods, both sacred and secular, is one of the Pyramid’s most remarkable features. Note how the Chart of the Ages and the interior passages of the Great Pyramid are in agreement.

In our next post we will begin with a closer look and examination of the various passages and chambers of the Pyramid.



The Great Pyramid, Part 15

The Great Pyramid, Part 15

Now as we had alluded to earlier in a previous post once the “sloping” masonry was removed revealing the great angular stones another unique item was likewise discovered. Located in the cavity just below the bottom two angular stones was found some sort of emblem cut into the stone. What precisely this particular item represented however is not so clear.

Some have suggested that it resembles an “eye” although personally I don’t see any such resemblance, perhaps some are a little too eager to find some connection between the Great Pyramid and the Masonic symbol of “the all seeing eye” found on the back of the one dollar bill.

Still others are of the opinion that it resembles the teeth of a “key”, that in some form or fashion it is central to unlocking the mystery of the Pyramid. That this is a distinctive possibility we readily admit, but not to any suggestion of its being a literal key mind you, rather we see it as a symbol of something which serves as a key. A closer look reveals that this particular symbol or emblem bears a remarkable resemblance to the “Subterranean Chamber” located beneath the Pyramid; this curious chamber is only roughly hewn out of the bedrock and looks almost as though it were a quarry.

The second photo below is merely a plaster model of the Subterranean Chamber (as viewed from the rear of the chamber, you have to picture it spun around), nevertheless I believe it serves best in showing a remarkable resemblance between the emblem and the Chamber.

Is this what is represented by the emblem the “Pit”? We can’t say for sure however a little further investigation into what we have thus far might prove helpful. Since the emblem is located directly beneath the two sets of angular stones we believe it correct to assume that all three are related to each other somehow.

So what about these angular stones; what do they represent? Why was one set of angular stones placed above another?

“In his 5th Edition of Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, page 296, Professor C. Piazzi Smyth draws attention to the four “angular” stones which lie conspicuously above the Entrance of the Pyramid. He demonstrates that their purpose was evidently to monumentalize the (pi) angle of the sides of the building, viz.: 51º 51’ 14”.3, but he does not suggest a reason why this dominant angle of the Pyramid should be particularly indicated at the Entrance. We suggest the following as being a possible symbolical reason.

The great “angular” stones preserve by their inclination toward each other, the scientific (pi) angle of the Pyramid’s four sides. They thus seem to say, in figurative language that at one time a perfect Pyramid stood here at the Entrance of the Descending Passage. The apex of the inside angle formed between the two sets of inclined stones (shown in the diagram below) is in line, nearly with the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor (the 25th course of masonry), this perfect pyramid would represent Adam, who was created on the Plane of Human Perfection.”

“One of man’s oldest mathematical quests has been to accurately determine the relationship between the circumference of a circle and its diameter. Mathematicians denote this ratio by the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, À (’pi’). This value, which we know today as 3.141592 +, was first accurately determined by Rudolph Van Ceulin in the sixteenth century. It is a ratio fundamental to the study of physical things, as it gives a mathematical link between straight and circular geometric figures. A proper ascertainment of this ratio is vital to mathematicians, astro-physicists, architects, and many others.

The pi ratio is one of the first mathematical features discovered in the Great Pyramid. In the 1850s John Taylor discovered that the original vertical height of the Great Pyramid was to its base perimeter as the radius of a circle is to its circumference. John Taylor noted that this pi proportion feature could only work with the unique Great Pyramid angle of 51° 51’. Thus no other pyramid contains this relationship.

According to both Smyth’s and Petrie’s measurements, the Great Pyramid demonstrates the pi proportion accurately to four decimal points. The significance of this demonstration is doubly impressive when one realizes that pi had not been worked out to this accuracy until the sixth century, more than 2700 years after the Great Pyramid’s completion.” (The Great Pyramid: Ancient Wonder, Modern Mystery)

In the Scriptures, our Lord is likened to the head cornerstone of a pyramid of which the great stone Pyramid in Egypt is a symbol (Psa 118:22; Matt 21:42). It is therefore quite in accord with the Scriptures, and with the Pyramid’s corroborative symbolisms, to liken Adam who in certain aspects was a type of Christ to a small perfect pyramid standing on the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor, immediately above the Entrance to the passage down which he afterwards is represented as falling in consequence of his disobedience. Now, the direct vertical distance between the north edge of the “basement sheet” of the Descending Passage, and the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor, is exactly a 25th of the complete vertical height of the whole Pyramid. This vertical distance is 232.5204+ Pyramid inches (shown below), and is an exact 25th part of the full Socket-to-apex vertical height of the building, 5813.0101+ Pyramid inches.

In his fallen state Adam is represented at the end of his 1000-year “day” of condemnation as standing at the north edge of the “basement sheet.” Thus, the little pyramid now reckoned as having fallen like Adam from the Queen’s Chamber floor-level down to the “basement sheet”, its apex just touching the line above which symbolizes the Plane of Human Perfection, represents Adam at the full end of his 1000-year “day” losing all hold upon his at one time perfect human state, and falling into the Descending Passage condition of death on his way to the “Pit”.

The fact that Adam is represented by a pyramid which is exactly a 25th the size of the Great Pyramid may explain the reason for the Queen’s Chamber being situated at the 25th masonry course of the building. This seems to be the Pyramid’s method of corroborating the Scriptural declaration that Adam was made in the image of his Creator, and that he was the earthly type of the Spiritual Adam (Rom 5:14), Christ, who is symbolized by the whole Great Pyramid.

As the pyramid representing Adam is a 25th of the size of the whole Pyramid, it follows that the dimensions of the latter in cubits is exactly reproduced in inches in the little model; for a cubit equals 25 inches. The number of inches in the base-length of the little pyramid is 365.242, i.e., the same as the number of days in the solar year. The foregoing symbolical representation of Adam is likewise supported by a number of other time-measurements, which we shall see later in our study.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 145-147)

In our next post we will begin our look at the interior passages of the Great Pyramid.

The Great Pyramid, Part 14

The Great Pyramid, Part 14

The following two illustrations with their various measurements are merely approximations and should not be taken as exact representations; nevertheless I believe they provide us with a general idea as to the overall size and dimension of the entrance. From what I’ve been able to gather thus far through my studies is there appears to be some variations to these measurements from one investigator to the next so determining the exact figures is rather difficult, however since this aspect of the Pyramid is not necessarily pertinent to our study we should not be to overly concern.

A particular view often depicted in many studies on the Pyramid is that of the masonry work taken from an easterly vantage point looking toward the west or right side of the entrance. As you can see from the following two illustrations there appears to be some discrepancy between just how the various courses of masonry were constructed, obviously our investigators each saw things a little different in their own investigations. Nevertheless in both of these illustrations the shaded areas denote all the stones which remain following the removal of the “sloping stones” and abundant masonry, and what we have left is the exposed masonry as viewed to the right of the entrance.


It should likewise be understood that the upright stones (B), which appear to be overriding the ceiling of the entrance passage are in fact located to the far right of the entrance tunnel, the original ceiling stones long since having been removed. Immediately above these stones located to the right of the entrance were place another particular course of stones (A) apparently with the intention of aiding in bringing the entrance opening which is on a 26 degree angle leading down to the subterranean chamber back in line horizontally with the remainder of the pyramid. Even so the remainder of the courses above and around these stones as depicted in the pictures above still remain a bit confusing to us especially when we take into consideration that the “slanted masonry” (C), which was set at approximately a 50º angle and located to the left and the right of the entrance as seen in the photos below (the purpose of which is still not exactly known), appears to be missing although it is possible that from their particular vantage point what was illustrated above is exactly what they saw, unfortunately all we have to go by is what photos are available to us. Nevertheless it appears the architect went to a lot of effort in designing this elaborate entrance.

Upon a closer examination of Fig. 1 we can see that there is a distinctive deviation in the angle of the masonry, course by course as it is slowly adjusted from the 26 degree angle of the descending passage to that of the horizontal plane of the remainder of the Pyramid.

Point A represents the horizontal plane of the Pyramid; in contrast Point F denotes the 26 degree angle of the entrance masonry (take special note of the hand rails these too are set on this particular angle). Now note how from Point F back to Point B how the stone courses gradually are brought back onto a horizontal plane. By the time the stone courses reach the 27th course (Point B) the entrance masonry is relatively back on line with the remainder of the Pyramid, this can be seen quite readily in the next two illustrations.

The illustration above (keeping in mind that this is merely an approximation) shows a little more detail into how the entrance was constructed including the “slanted masonry” located to the right of the entrance, the actual design and placement of the various stones involved in this masonry differing somewhat from that of the design shown at the top of this page, keep in mind that particular illustration was meant only to be used as a basic guide to aid us in determining the overall measurements of the entrance. Here we can see that the entrance passage is much more elaborate than what we might have previously imagined more than merely a simple opening in the side of the Pyramid.

This is a cut out of the Pyramid showing the entrance passage with the casing stones in place (Note: in this particular illustration we have not illustrated the “slanted masonry). Regardless you may have noted from both this illustration and from the previous one that we have simply illustrated the stones located immediately below the “slanted masonry” as consisting merely of a rectangular mass of stones, the reason for this is because there is no indication (nor way of proving), that these stones continued on down alongside the stones immediately found over the descending passage, however with regards to the ceiling stones themselves they are not only visible from within the descending passage, but I believe are likewise revealed at the opening where Al Mamoun’s forced passage opens up near the granite plugs here their width is once again confirmed. Another particular set of stones whose width likewise remains the same beginning from the entrance all the way down to this point is the floor-stones.

These floor-stones (2 ½ feet in height, three across) can be traced at their exposed outer ends for a combined width of thirty three feet, from east to west. Because of this great width Professor C. Piazzi Smyth named the floor of the Descending Passage the “Basement Sheet”. Down the center of this long broad sheet of stone, and at a distance of three and half feet apart, the walls of the passage are laid; and placed on top of these are immense roof-stones, eight and a half feet in thickness, and over twelve feet in width from east to west.

Thus, while the Descending Passage is very narrow, the sheet of masonry which forms its floor is so broad, that by this means the passage sustains its symbolical significance, namely, its representation of thebroad way that leads to destruction.” Professor Smyth was of the opinion that the present outside end of this Basement-sheet is also its original north-beginning. Nevertheless, the ancient doorway must have been nearly ten and a half feet further out, in line with the now missing casing of the building (See the second black and white illustration above). In the symbolic and scientific features of the Pyramid, both the ancient and present north commencements of the Descending Passage floor are recognized thus proving that Professor Smyth was correct in his opinion as to the importance of the Basement sheet.

Without doubt the Entrance Passage was constructed to endure; and the workmanship displayed in it has been the object of the great admiration of all investigators, both ancient and modern. Professor Greaves on beholding the beautiful masonry of this passage in 1638 thirty eight centuries after the completion of the building exclaimed with almost Tennysonian feeling: “The structure of it hath been the labor of an exquisite hand, and appears by the smoothness and evenness of the work, and by the close knitting of the joints”; and Professor C. Piazzi Smyth writes: “No one with an ability to appreciate good work can look unmoved with admiration at the extraordinarily truthful straight lines, and close fitting of the wall joints near and about the present Entrance”; while Professor Flinders Petrie adds his testimony in the following eulogism: “The pavement, lower casing, and Entrance Passage are exquisitely wrought; in fact the means employed for placing and cementing the blocks of soft limestone weighing a dozen or twenty tons each, with such hair-like joints are almost inconceivable at present; and the accuracy of the leveling is marvelous.” (Great Pyramid Passages, Pages 215-216)

One more item before we conclude here, there has been some debate as to whether or not there were actually 144,000 casing stones encompassing the Pyramid with some computer calculations indicating only 40,000 to 50,000 total stones, roughly 10 to 15 thousand per side, however we fell to see how this computer estimate could be established unless it were determined that all the stones were roughly the exact same size as the limestone blocks located immediately behind them on each course, however as was illustrated in our last drawing above and confirmed by the remaining casing stones found at the base of the Pyramid, we believe these stones not only varied in height, width, and length, but likewise that additional white casing stones were placed immediately behind these, and not in any exact manner. Sometimes a long “header block” was placed abutting two outer stones (as depicted in the photo below), sometimes it might be the other way around or possibly just one stone found directly behind another. Depending on their size certain casing stones might even have gone two to three deep into a course on some occasions . Computer calculations could not possibly account for the number of these hidden stones.

As for ourselves spiritually speaking we can see how these white casing stones representative of the body of Christ, robed in white raiment could vary in size and shape even as star differs from star, and as for the hidden stones is it not true that some members of the body are more visible to us than are others, perhaps further thoughts to ponder.

We will continue with our examination of the pyramid in our next post.

The Great Pyramid, Part 13

The Great Pyramid, Part 13

As we stand in awe at the masonry now exposed surrounding the entrance to the Great Pyramid questions begin to stir within our minds. Why and for what purpose? What was the architect thinking when he designed the entrance to the pyramid in the particular way in which he did? For as you recall at one time the pyramid entrance was completely covered in beautifully fitted and cut white casing stones with a door so perfectly concealed that for quite some time its location had apparently become lost, and yet for some reason unbeknownst to us the architect had likewise taken the time to construct an elaborately fashioned entrance way hidden beneath these casing stones. Why for what reason? If this interior masonry was intended to be hidden by the casing stones why go through all the trouble to construct such an elaborate entrance? Why not just construct a simple entrance tunnel protruding through the appropriate masonry course and leave it at that, after all it was never to be seen hidden beneath the beautiful white casing, or was it?

Could it have been possibly that his intention all along was that what we see here now before us is what he had intended for us to see all along, that he had foreknown that the casing stones would eventually be removed in time?

The mystery grows even more mysteries when we start to take a closer look at the actual construction of this entrance area that is prior to the destructive work which has left it as we see it today.

At one time the masonry surrounding the entrance to the Great Pyramid resembled something similar to what we see here in the our illustration above with its beautiful white casing still in place, but soon the ruthless hands of the spoiler stripped this casing away leaving the core masonry exposed. Once this casing was stripped from the pyramid it likewise exposed the elaborately designed masonry surrounding the entrance passage. The illustration below is a facsimile of what the masonry surrounding the entrance looked like prior to it’s having been stripped and damaged; this of course minis the various courses of stone which all but hid the upper section from view.

Note that in this particular illustration we are looking straight at the entrance following the 26 degree angle of the Entrance Passage that is why the upper masonry appears to be leaning forward.

The illustrations below show roughly just how much masonry was eventually removed from around the entrance, the second illustration a view often seen in most Pyramid books.


Now it is understandable why thieves would strip the casing from the pyramid, but what would have possessed them to remove the masonry surrounding the entrance passage itself, and this all the way back to great angular stones we now see residing over the entrance passage today? The surrounding masonry was not constructed of the same highly prized beautiful white Tura lime stone which surrounded the exterior of the pyramid but was similar in nature to that of the rest of the core of the pyramid, the typical Grey-yellow nummulite lime stone (Mokattam limestone), so there was no real practical value in removing these stones. (Note: In our illustration above we purposely showed these stones in white merely to differentiate them from the stones which remain.) Even if there were some need of this particular type of lime stone it would have proven much easier to just simply remove some of the stones from the lower courses, not to mention the fact that some of these stones surrounding the entrance passage especially those which made up the ceiling over the entrance must have average at the very least some 20 tons a piece, that and the combination of their being placed on a 26 degree decline following the path of the Descending Passage would have made their removal very near impossible. So why remove them?

Perhaps we’re not looking at this correctly; perhaps the architect purposely designed this elaborate work so as to appeal to our curiosity. Once the casing was removed and the masonry surrounding the entrance exposed the natural inclination of man would be to question why? and for what purpose is this? Why was it constructed thusly, especially so in regards to the upper most masonry, why were these stones laid as they were, slopping backward, staggered at different levels one behind the next, was there something yet unseen hidden behind them?

What were found were the great angular stones we now see residing over the entrance, (plus one other unique item which we will take a look at shortly).

These angular stones are much like a slice of the side of a casing stone in their angle; but their breadth and length are about half as large again as any of the casing stones. Their mean angle from 12 measures is 50º 28′ ± 5′. The thickness of these blocks is only 33 inches, and there are no others exactly behind them, as the horizontal joints of the stones running on behind them are visible for several inches.”


“On the faces of the angular blocks are many traces of the mortaring which joined to the sloping blocks next in front of them. These were placed some 70 inches lower at the top, and were not so deep vertically. By the fragment left on the east side (A), the faces of these blocks were vertical (there apparently were two sets of these vertical blocks the northern most being cut at a slight angle where they joined each other).

In front of these came the third pair, similar, but leaning some 7½º or 8º inwards on the face (approximately 84º), judging by a remaining fragment. Probably a fourth and fifth pair were also placed here; the abutment of the fifth pair shows an angle of 70½º or 73º in place of 50º (I believe in reference to the overall angle of the pyramid itself). The successive lowering of the tops, leaning the faces in, and flattening the angle of slope of the stones as they approach the outside, being apparently to prevent their coming too close to the casing.

These sloping blocks were probably not all stripped away, as at present, until more recently, as there is a graffito, dated 1476 A.D. (half destroyed by the mock-antique Prussian inscription) on the face of the remaining block where it is now inaccessible, but just above where the next pair of blocks were placed. The sloping blocks are of remarkably soft fine-grained limestone, about the best that I have seen, much like that of the roofing of the chamber in Pepi’s Pyramid; and it is peculiar for weathering very quickly to the brown tint, proper to the fine Mokattam limestone, darkening completely in about twenty years, to judge by the modern-dated graffiti.” (The Pyramids and Temples of Giza by W. M. Flinders Petrie)

Continued with next post.